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I am writing a program that will take a multitude of data, such as chlorophyll levels, water temperature, nitrogen/phosphorous levels, etc., in order to predict the growth of algae in a body of water. There are many factors that could affect the growth of algae. Because of this, I do not know which application I should use in the Scikit-learn library in order to accommodate all of the different columns. The algae level is one of the columns. To be more specific, there are 17 other columns that I want to account for (Half of which are identifiers for if the data is likely to be incorrect). What should I use in order to account for all of the columns?

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Your problem is not well defined. I suppose you want to estimate/predict the growth based on some explanatory variables, so $y(X)$. First you need to define what $y$ actually is, an (absolute) amount or a growth rate?

You can for instance formulate a linear model like:

$$y = \beta_0 + \beta_1 + X + u$$ to measure the absolute amount of $y$ contingent on some $X$. Alternatively, you can also look at how $y$ changes, when $X$ changes by using a $log$ transformation on either $y$ or $X$. See this for more details. To apply such models, you would generally use linear regression.

However, if you are simply up to making a prediction (and you are not necessarily interested in interpreting regression coefficients in order to find average marginal effects of $X$ on $y$), you can use many different model types in sklearn.

It is standard to include several explanatory variables ($X$), so this is not an issue. See the various sklearn examples, such as this one.

If you are simply up to prediction, you may start with a random forest regression (since this is most robust and often works well). First, split your data into a train and test set. Second, run a random forest on the train set, Third, test your model based on the test set.

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