How is the concept of data different for different disciplines? Obviously, for physicists and sociologists, "data" is something different.
Data is, at it's most basic reduction, a raw element of something. Data is a raw "thing" that exists in any form from which we can analyze it and construct intelligence. When I was an Intelligence Analyst, we used to define data as "anything and everything that could be used to construct a hypothesis."
Thus, data for any discipline is interchangeable; as a sociologist, I have a vector of discrete variables indicating ethnicity, as an economist I have a vector with housing prices, and as an anthropologist I have a vector of tablet names used in some long-gone civilization.
Data is data.