I am currently training an ANN using Sequential(a class from Keras API within tensorflow), and I am optimizing the model's architecture and came across something I have not seen before.

The graph of the test accuracy seems a bit odd. The graph appears that it is not a smooth curve, but different.


import pandas as pd
from tensorflow import keras
from tensorflow.keras import layers

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split 
from tensorflow.keras.models import Sequential 
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Dense

features = data[['Vcom', 'T', 'Vair']]
labels = data[['COP', 'CC']]

features_train, features_test, labels_train, labels_test = train_test_split(features, labels, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)

from tensorflow.keras.layers import  Dropout , BatchNormalization
from tensorflow.keras import regularizers

model = Sequential() 
l2_regularizer = regularizers.l2(0.01)

model.add(Dense(64, activation='relu', input_shape=(3,), kernel_regularizer=l2_regularizer))

model.add(Dense(32, activation='relu', kernel_regularizer=l2_regularizer))


model.add(Dense(32, activation='relu'))

model.add(Dense(2,))  # 2 output neurons for output1 and output2

model.compile(optimizer='adam', loss='mean_squared_error', metrics=['accuracy'])

model_history=model.fit(features_train, labels_train, epochs=150, batch_size=32, validation_data=(features_test, labels_test))

# summarize history for accuracy
plt.title('model accuracy')
plt.legend(['train', 'test'], loc='upper left')

My question is:

  1. Why the test accuracy showing odd patterns ?

  2. How can I fix this problem?

enter image description here

  • $\begingroup$ Looks like a problem with the validation data. Have you checked it for "strange things"? Also, is the training data preprocessing also applied to the validation data? $\endgroup$
    – noe
    Nov 25, 2023 at 19:05
  • $\begingroup$ @noe I have split the data of 20% for validation set. No, data preprocessing is not applied specially for validation data . $\endgroup$
    – Aach_copro
    Nov 25, 2023 at 19:12
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Can you share both your training and test dataset? Looks like you're applying your ANN to a fairly simple problem and thus overfit occurs just after 30 epochs. $\endgroup$
    – cinch
    Nov 26, 2023 at 8:02
  • $\begingroup$ @mohottnad I have just one dataset, then I have split the dataset into training and test dataset $\endgroup$
    – Aach_copro
    Nov 26, 2023 at 9:36
  • $\begingroup$ To understand further what is happening, have you (1) looked at the mean-squared-error plots (i.e. plotting the metric you are using as the loss function) for the training and validation data and (2) tried with a different train/test split (i.e. use a different random state in the call to train_test_split)? $\endgroup$
    – Lynn
    Nov 26, 2023 at 10:17

1 Answer 1


Why the test accuracy showing odd patterns ?

As @mohottnad mentioned in the comment, it appears your model overfits. It means that it doesn't generalise well and works badly on testing data. I don't know the details of you data, but this strange pattern of accuracy might be explained as follows:

  1. after many epochs your model is so overtrained that it return just one class.
  2. in epoch 100 this class is A and it covers correctly almost 60% of data
  3. in epoch 115 decision threshold changes slightly and the model's guess is B that is correct in +- 1/3 of data
  4. and so on, and so on

It's my hypothesis you can dissect, your situation probably isn't as simple as I described, but it might be very similar. You can also check if you have an imbalanced dataset that might be an issue.

How can I fix this problem?

I don't know how complex your variables are, but you have just 3 input variables and you feed them into 64->32->32 neurons. In many cases, it's too much. I would try with a way simpler model like 16->8 neurons or even smaller. Your demend on model complexity is associated with complexity of relationships in your data. Maybe you need just a logistic regression, who knows? It's up to you to experiment and offset it. The value=0.6 in dropout for this data and model also appears to be too high.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Now I understand that what was the problem in my model, after experimenting with model for different values , I get optimised values which solved the issues. $\endgroup$
    – Aach_copro
    Nov 27, 2023 at 11:08

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