I'm working on speech recognition with Tensorflow and plan to train LSTM NN with massive waves dataset. Because of the performance gains, I plan to use tfrecords. There are several examples on internet (Inception for ex.) where tfrecords files are split into shards. My question is: what is the benefit of having tfrecords file into shards? Is there any additional performance gain of this split?


5 Answers 5


Splitting TFRecord files into shards helps you shuffle large datasets that won't fit into memory.

Imagine you have millions of training examples saved on disk and you want to repeatedly run them through a training process. Furthermore, suppose that for each repetition of the training data (i.e. each epoch) you want to load the data in a completely random order.

One approach is to have one file per training example and generate a list of all filenames. Then at the beginning of each epoch you shuffle the list of filenames and load the individual files. The problem with this approach is that you are loading millions of files from random locations on your disk. This can be slow especially on a hard disk drive. Even a RAID 0 array will not help with speed if you are loading millions of small files from random locations. The problem gets even worse if you are accessing the files over a network connection.

Another approach is to read the training examples in sequence from one large TFRecord file and shuffle the examples in memory using a shuffle buffer. However, the shuffle buffer typically cannot be larger than the DDR memory available to your CPU. And if the shuffle buffer is significantly smaller than your dataset, then it may not adequately shuffle the data. The data may be "locally" shuffled but not "globally" shuffled. That is, examples from the beginning of the dataset may not be shuffled with examples from the end of the dataset.

A good solution is to use a balanced combination of the above two approaches by splitting your dataset into multiple TFRecord files (called shards). During each epoch you can shuffle the shard filenames to obtain global shuffling and use a shuffle buffer to obtain local shuffling. A good balance will make the shards large enough to prevent disk speed issues but will keep the shards small enough to allow for adequately shuffling by a shuffle buffer.

Here are the exact steps:

  1. Randomly place all training examples into multiple TFRecord files (shards).
  2. At the beginning of each epoch, shuffle the list of shard filenames.
  3. Read training examples from the shards and pass the examples through a shuffle buffer. Typically, the shuffle buffer should be larger than the shard size to ensure good shuffling across shards.
  4. Pass the shuffled examples into your training process.

In researching the benefits of splitting into multiple files, the only reasonable answer came from one of the Google folks.

They said performance gains are negligible, but I agree that splitting files can help, especially if you want to transfer the dataset to another location.

Keep in mind that now you don't need to shuffle before saving, because (currently) recommended method to read TFRecords uses tf.data.TFRecordDataset which implements very useful .shuffle() method.

  • 4
    $\begingroup$ .shuffle() method is not an ideal solution if you have one big tfrecord file. The shuffled output is somewhat related to the original order if you don't use a large buffer size. I think pre-shuffle the data before saving to tfrecord or splitting into shards is necessary when you have a big dataset. $\endgroup$
    – Bruce Chou
    Dec 21, 2018 at 16:10

For those still wondering: it's so that you can shuffle your data. With your TFrecords in one file, you can't shuffle the order. This is typically necessary with SGD.

However, with shards, you can shuffle the order of the shards which allows you to approximate shuffling the data as if you had access to the individual TFRecords. This is clearly better than nothing, and clearly the more shards you have the better this approximation.

The alternative is pre-shuffle your data via duplicating it or don't use TFRecords at all.


Splitting a TFRecords file into multiple shards has essentially 3 advantages:

  1. Easier to shuffle. As others have pointed out, it makes it easy to shuffle the data at a coarse level (before using a shuffle buffer).
  2. Faster to download. If the files are spread across multiple servers, downloading several files from different servers in parallel will optimize bandwidth usage (rather than downloading one file from a single server). This can improve performance significantly compared to downloading the data from a single server.
  3. Simpler to manipulate. It's easier to deal with 10,000 files of 100MB each rather than with a single 1TB file. Huge files can be a pain to handle: in particular, transfers are much more likely to fail. It's also harder to manipulate subsets of the data when it's all in a single file.

In case you would like to use a TPU, you need a GCS bucket. You can increase the amount of throughput tremendously by having multiple files, so you can have multiple streams and the TPU sit less in ideal


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