# Neural network q learning for tic tac toe - how to use the threshold

I am currently programming a q learning neural network tha does not work. I have previously asked a question about inputs and have sorted that out. My current idea to why the program does not work is to do with the threshold value. this is a neural network - q learning specific variable.

basically the theshold is a value that is between 0 and 1, you then make a random number between 0 and 1, if this random number is larger than the threshold then you pick a completely random choice, otherwise the neural network chooses by finding the largest q value.

My question is that with this threshold value, i am currently implementing it as starting at almost 0, then increasing linearly until it reaches 1 by the time the program has reached the final iteration. Is this correct?

The reason i suspect this is incorrect is that when plotting an error graph from training the neural network, the program doesnt not learn at all, but when the threshold reaches almost 1, it starts to learn very fast, and if you run more iterations after it reaches 1, the all the game sets in the replay memory become the same and the error is basically 0 from their on in.

Any feedback is greatly appreciated and if this question in unclear in anyway just let me know and i will try and fix it. Thank you to anyone who helps out.

You are effectively implementing $\epsilon$-greedy action selection.

The usual way to represent this in RL, at least that I am familiar with, is not as a "threshold" for probability of choosing the best estimated action, but as a small probability, $\epsilon$, of not choosing the best estimated action.

For consistency with RL literature that I know, I will use the $\epsilon$-greedy form, so instead of considering what happens as your threshold rises from 0 to 1, I will consider what happens when $\epsilon$ drops from 1 to 0. It is the same thing. I hope you can either adjust to using $\epsilon$ or mentally convert the rest of this answer so it is about your threshold . . .

When monitoring Q-Learning, you have to be careful how you measure success. Monitoring the behaviour on the learning games will give you slightly off feedback. The agent will make exploratory moves (with probability $\epsilon$), and the results from a learning game might involve the agent losing even though it already has a policy good enough to not lose from the position where it started exploring. If you want to measure how well the agent has learned the game, you have to stop the training stage and play some games with $\epsilon$ set to $0$. I suspect this could be one problem - that you are measuring results from behaviour during training (note this would work with SARSA)

In addition, choosing values that are too high or low for your problem will reduce the speed of learning. High values interfere with Q-learning because it has to reject some of data from exploratory moves, and the agent will rarely see a full game played using its preferred policy. Low values stifle learning because the agent does not explore different options enough, just repeating the same game play when there might be better moves that it has not tried. For Tic Tac Toe and Q-learning I would suggest picking a value of $\epsilon$ between $0.01$ and $0.2$

In fact, with Q-learning there is no need to change the value of $\epsilon$. You should be able to pick a value, say $0.1$, and stick with it. The agent will still learn an optimal policy, because Q-learning is an off-policy algorithm.

• Thanks a bunch again! You've been really helpful and changing this does give different results which i am tweaking with to see if their is any improvement. Jan 13, 2018 at 21:29