I want to use this keras seq2seq example to train my model. But i dont undestand role of encoder and decoder model and why we dont use model which we trained here.

model.fit([encoder_input_data, decoder_input_data], decoder_target_data, batch_size=batch_size, epochs=epochs, validation_split=0.2)

In the second, model dont work after saving , it means that when i load model from file and try to use it.It returns invalid values differing from the values that were predicted immediately after the training.

Please can you describe for me this two problems.

from keras.models import Model,save_model,load_model
from keras.layers import Input, LSTM, Dense
import numpy as np

batch_size = 64  # Batch size for training.
epochs = 10  # Number of epochs to train for.
latent_dim = 256  # Latent dimensionality of the encoding space.
num_samples = 100    # Number of samples to train on.
# Path to the data txt file on disk.
data_path = 'fragments1.txt'

# Vectorize the data.
input_texts = []
target_texts = []
input_characters = set()
target_characters = set()
with open(data_path, 'r', encoding='utf-8') as f:
    lines = f.read().split('\n')
for line in lines[: min(num_samples, len(lines) - 1)]:
    input_text, target_text = line.split('\t')
    # We use "tab" as the "start sequence" character
    # for the targets, and "\n" as "end sequence" character.
    target_text = '\t' + target_text + '\n'
    for char in input_text:
        if char not in input_characters:
    for char in target_text:
        if char not in target_characters:

input_characters = sorted(list(input_characters))
target_characters = sorted(list(target_characters))
num_encoder_tokens = len(input_characters)
num_decoder_tokens = len(target_characters)
max_encoder_seq_length = max([len(txt) for txt in input_texts])
max_decoder_seq_length = max([len(txt) for txt in target_texts])

print('Number of samples:', len(input_texts))
print('Number of unique input tokens:', num_encoder_tokens)
print('Number of unique output tokens:', num_decoder_tokens)
print('Max sequence length for inputs:', max_encoder_seq_length)
print('Max sequence length for outputs:', max_decoder_seq_length)

input_token_index = dict(
    [(char, i) for i, char in enumerate(input_characters)])
target_token_index = dict(
    [(char, i) for i, char in enumerate(target_characters)])

encoder_input_data = np.zeros(
    (len(input_texts), max_encoder_seq_length, num_encoder_tokens),
decoder_input_data = np.zeros(
    (len(input_texts), max_decoder_seq_length, num_decoder_tokens),
decoder_target_data = np.zeros(
    (len(input_texts), max_decoder_seq_length, num_decoder_tokens),

for i, (input_text, target_text) in enumerate(zip(input_texts, target_texts)):
    for t, char in enumerate(input_text):
        encoder_input_data[i, t, input_token_index[char]] = 1.
    for t, char in enumerate(target_text):
        # decoder_target_data is ahead of decoder_input_data by one timestep
        decoder_input_data[i, t, target_token_index[char]] = 1.
        if t > 0:
            # decoder_target_data will be ahead by one timestep
            # and will not include the start character.
            decoder_target_data[i, t - 1, target_token_index[char]] = 1.

# Define an input sequence and process it.
encoder_inputs = Input(shape=(None, num_encoder_tokens))
encoder = LSTM(latent_dim, return_state=True)
encoder_outputs, state_h, state_c = encoder(encoder_inputs)
# We discard `encoder_outputs` and only keep the states.
encoder_states = [state_h, state_c]

# Set up the decoder, using `encoder_states` as initial state.
decoder_inputs = Input(shape=(None, num_decoder_tokens))
# We set up our decoder to return full output sequences,
# and to return internal states as well. We don't use the
# return states in the training model, but we will use them in inference.
decoder_lstm = LSTM(latent_dim, return_sequences=True, return_state=True)
decoder_outputs, _, _ = decoder_lstm(decoder_inputs,
decoder_dense = Dense(num_decoder_tokens, activation='softmax')
decoder_outputs = decoder_dense(decoder_outputs)

# Define the model that will turn
# `encoder_input_data` & `decoder_input_data` into `decoder_target_data`
model = Model([encoder_inputs, decoder_inputs], decoder_outputs)

# Run training
model.compile(optimizer='rmsprop', loss='categorical_crossentropy')
model.fit([encoder_input_data, decoder_input_data], decoder_target_data,
# Save model
save_model(model, 'model.h5')

# Next: inference mode (sampling).
# Here's the drill:
# 1) encode input  and retrieve initial decoder state
# 2) run one step of decoder with this initial state
# and a "start of sequence" token as target.
# Output will be the next target token
# 3) Repeat with the current target token and current states

# Define sampling models
encoder_model = Model(encoder_inputs, encoder_states)

decoder_state_input_h = Input(shape=(latent_dim,))
decoder_state_input_c = Input(shape=(latent_dim,))
decoder_states_inputs = [decoder_state_input_h, decoder_state_input_c]
decoder_outputs, state_h, state_c = decoder_lstm(
    decoder_inputs, initial_state=decoder_states_inputs)
decoder_states = [state_h, state_c]
decoder_outputs = decoder_dense(decoder_outputs)
decoder_model = Model(
    [decoder_inputs] + decoder_states_inputs,
    [decoder_outputs] + decoder_states)

# Reverse-lookup token index to decode sequences back to
# something readable.
reverse_input_char_index = dict(
    (i, char) for char, i in input_token_index.items())
reverse_target_char_index = dict(
    (i, char) for char, i in target_token_index.items())

def decode_sequence(input_seq):
    # Encode the input as state vectors.
    states_value = encoder_model.predict(input_seq)

    # Generate empty target sequence of length 1.
    target_seq = np.zeros((1, 1, num_decoder_tokens))
    # Populate the first character of target sequence with the start character.
    target_seq[0, 0, target_token_index['\t']] = 1.

    # Sampling loop for a batch of sequences
    # (to simplify, here we assume a batch of size 1).
    stop_condition = False
    decoded_sentence = ''
    while not stop_condition:
        output_tokens, h, c = decoder_model.predict(
            [target_seq] + states_value)

        # Sample a token
        sampled_token_index = np.argmax(output_tokens[0, -1, :])
        sampled_char = reverse_target_char_index[sampled_token_index]
        decoded_sentence += sampled_char

        # Exit condition: either hit max length
        # or find stop character.
        if (sampled_char == '\n' or
           len(decoded_sentence) > max_decoder_seq_length):
            stop_condition = True

        # Update the target sequence (of length 1).
        target_seq = np.zeros((1, 1, num_decoder_tokens))
        target_seq[0, 0, sampled_token_index] = 1.

        # Update states
        states_value = [h, c]

    return decoded_sentence

There seems to be an issue in Keras save_weights and load_model functions. You can read more about it here, here and here. So far there is no workaround about it.

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