I have a dataset where I have the Outcome of a case and the Country under review, as well as whether a judge (among a panel of judges) reviewing the case was also from the country under review, Country_Judge, categorised as TRUE or FALSE.

How can I measure the relationship between the Country_Judge and the Outcome of a case? I want to know whether a judge's nationality has an impact on the outcome of the cases.

  • $\begingroup$ This would traditionally be addressed using Logistic Regression. $\endgroup$
    – R Hill
    Mar 19, 2018 at 16:05
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ In general, a nice way of check relationship between categorical variables is via the co-occurrence matrices. Here an example about music genres: r-bloggers.com/clustering-music-genres-with-r But in your case, why not use something much simpler, like counting how many Guilty and Innocent sentenced per judges nationality? $\endgroup$ Mar 19, 2018 at 16:23

1 Answer 1


Is Outcome also a boolean variable? If so, a simple prop.test will do.

Here's a toy dataset where a judge from the same country is less likely to give a guilty verdict.

dataset<-tibble(country_judge = sample(c(TRUE,FALSE), n, 
                                           replace=T, prob=c(0.2,0.8))) %>%
  mutate(outcome = ifelse(country_judge,
                          sample(c("Guilty", "Innocent"), n, 
                                     replace=T, prob=c(0.4,0.6)),
                          sample(c("Guilty", "Innocent"), n, 
                                     replace=T, prob=c(0.5,0.5))))

dataset %>%
  group_by(country_judge) %>%

This will give something like:

# A tibble: 2 x 2
  country_judge  p_guilty
          <lgl>     <dbl>
1         FALSE 0.5108835
2          TRUE 0.3698630

Now, pull out vectors of trials, and "successes", and feed those into prop.test.

trials <- dataset %>%
  group_by(country_judge) %>%
  count() %>%

successes <- dataset %>%
  filter(outcome=="Guilty") %>%
  group_by(country_judge) %>%
  count() %>%

prop.test(successes, trials)

Which gives something like:

    2-sample test for equality of proportions with continuity correction

data:  successes out of trials
X-squared = 13.068, df = 1, p-value = 0.0003003
alternative hypothesis: two.sided
95 percent confidence interval:
 0.06517776 0.21686317
sample estimates:
   prop 1    prop 2 
0.5108835 0.3698630 

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