I have been working on developing a system "Converting Natural Language to SQL Query".

I have read the answers from the similar questions, but was not able to get the information that I was looking for.

Below is the flowchart for such system which I have got from An Algorithm to Transform Natural Language into SQL Queries for Relational Databases by Garima Singh, Arun Solanki


I have understood till part of speech tagging step. But how do I approach the remaining steps.

  1. Do I need to train all the possible SQL queries?
  2. Or, once part of speech tagging is done, I have to play with the words and form a SQL query?

Edit: I have successfully implemented the from step "user query" to "Part of speech tagging".

Thank you.

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    $\begingroup$ At Nibi.ai (I am one of the founders) we are building an NLP to SQL engine that you can use as an API. We are launching soon. Let me know if you want to get a demo. $\endgroup$ – Yehuda Kogan Aug 29 '18 at 13:55
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    $\begingroup$ As an alternative you may ask the human to take a SQL course... $\endgroup$ – Marmite Bomber Aug 29 '18 at 22:54

If you want to tackle the problem from another perspective, with an end to end learning, such that you don't specify ahead of time this large pipeline you've mentioned earlier, all you care about is the mapping between sentences and their corresponding SQL queries.


How to talk to your database



A large annotated semantic parsing corpus for developing natural language interfaces.

Github code:

  1. seq2sql
  2. SQLNet

Also, there are commercial solutions like nlsql

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    $\begingroup$ +1, for answering well but haven't gone through the links yet $\endgroup$ – Toros91 May 16 '18 at 6:11
  • $\begingroup$ @Fadi Bakoura Thank you. Let me go through the links . $\endgroup$ – deepguy May 16 '18 at 6:56

NLTK has an excellent step by step guide on everything you need to convert human language to an SQL query using the nltk package in python.

It’s rudimentary, but it answers your question.

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks @killerT2333 . I just had look. But it is kind of confusing. Is there any other simple doc ? $\endgroup$ – deepguy May 14 '18 at 16:15
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    $\begingroup$ That's the simplest one I know of - it's quite a complex task what you're asking, so there's no simple answer to your question. On the nltk documentation they do take you through the theory at a high level, and at also at a low level with a lot of code examples. More extensive than that, you probably need to search github or research papers. $\endgroup$ – PyRsquared May 14 '18 at 16:17
  • $\begingroup$ I will go through that one more time. And update you here. $\endgroup$ – deepguy May 14 '18 at 16:58

To complement Fadi's answer, the following are other useful papers on NL to SQL methods. The major difference of these methods is that they support queries that should be answered using more than one table (joining different tables), however the Salesforce paper (and their dataset) is focused on queries on one table at a time.

Both of these papers use the GeoQuery dataset avaialbe here.


There are lots of works on text-to-SQL task.

I strongly suggest you to check WikiSQL and Spider datasets. Studies start from seq2seq + attention mech. to BERT-based solutions. Also each study points out the importance of the input representaion where you can feed all the table schema or just a column name. It's a pretty deep topic and as @PyRsquared said there is no simple answer :)


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