What's immediate superset?
Why is it called immediate?
They appear in the context of Apriori algorithm. Particularly the one enhanced with hashing.
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Immediate often occurs simply to say that there are perhaps many supersets, e.g. when we have a tree like structure. There is also for example, the converse, an immediate subset.
Set A has a superset B, and that superset has its own superset C. In this case, A must also be contained within C, but the set B lies within that realm and so is the immedaite superset of A.
Perhaps it is best visualised with a Venn diagram, where B is the immediate superset of A and equally the immediate subset of C:
There is some discussion here on Cross-Validated too, where the selected answer shows some further usage of the term (albeit in a slightly different context). Have a look at this source for some usage of the term, which leads you to my understanding.