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I used the code provided here: https://towardsdatascience.com/ridge-and-lasso-regression-a-complete-guide-with-python-scikit-learn-e20e34bcbf0b

The only difference is that i used StandardScalar on my data given below:

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
sc = StandardScaler()
X_train = sc.fit_transform(X_train)
X_test = sc.transform (X_test)
print len(X_test), len(y_test)

Here are my ridge regression results: linear regression train score: 1.0 linear regression test score: -0.07550729376673715 ridge regression train score low alpha: 0.9999999970240117 ridge regression test score low alpha: -0.07532716978805554 ridge regression train score high alpha: 0.8659167364307487 ridge regression test score high alpha: 0.013702748149851396

My Lasso results: training score: 0.48725444995774625 test score: -0.3393210376146986 number of features used: 4 training score for alpha=0.01: 0.9998352085084429 test score for alpha =0.01: -0.6995903332119675 number of features used: for alpha =0.01: 24 training score for alpha=0.0001: 0.9999999830932269 test score for alpha =0.0001: -0.7189894474663594 number of features used: for alpha =0.0001: 25 LR training score: 1.0 LR test score: -0.7217224228737649

I am not able to understand why am i getting such results! Any help is highly appreciated.

Edit: The code is below

    #Importing modules

        import sys
        import math 
        import itertools
        import numpy as np
        import pandas as pd
        from numpy import genfromtxt
        from matplotlib import style
        import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
        from sklearn import linear_model
        from matplotlib import style, figure
        from sklearn.linear_model import Lasso
        from sklearn.linear_model import Ridge
        from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
        from sklearn.cross_validation import train_test_split

    #Importing data
    df = np.genfromtxt('/Users/pfc.csv', delimiter=',')

    X = df[0:,1:298]
    y = df[0:,0]
    print (X).shape
    print (y).shape
    display (X)
    display (y)
    print (y)



#print type(newY)# pandas core frame
    X_train,X_test,y_train,y_test=train_test_split(X,y,test_size=0.2,random_state=4)

  #Apply StandardScaler for feature scaling
        from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
        sc = StandardScaler()
        X_train = sc.fit_transform(X_train)
        X_test = sc.transform (X_test)
        print len(X_test), len(y_test)

    lr = LinearRegression()
    lr.fit(X_train, y_train)
    rr = Ridge(alpha=0.01) # higher the alpha value, more restriction on the coefficients; low alpha > more generalization, coefficients are barely restricted and in this case linear and ridge regression resembles

    from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error
    from math import sqrt
    rr.fit(X_train, y_train)
    rr100 = Ridge(alpha=115.5) #  comparison with alpha value
    rr100.fit(X_train, y_train)
    train_score=lr.score(X_train, y_train)
    test_score=lr.score(X_test, y_test)
    Ridge_train_score = rr.score(X_train,y_train)
    Ridge_test_score = rr.score(X_test, y_test)
    Ridge_train_score100 = rr100.score(X_train,y_train)
    Ridge_test_score100 = rr100.score(X_test, y_test)

    print "linear regression train score:", train_score
    print "linear regression test score:", test_score
    print "ridge regression train score low alpha:", Ridge_train_score
    print "ridge regression test score low alpha:", Ridge_test_score
    print "ridge regression train score high alpha:", Ridge_train_score100
    print "ridge regression test score high alpha:", Ridge_test_score100
    plt.figure (figsize= (12.8,9.6), dpi =100)
    plt.plot(rr.coef_,alpha=0.7,linestyle='none',marker='*',markersize=5,color='red',label=r'Ridge; $\alpha = 0.01$',zorder=7) # zorder for ordering the markers
    plt.plot(rr100.coef_,alpha=0.5,linestyle='none',marker='d',markersize=6,color='blue',label=r'Ridge; $\alpha = 100$') # alpha here is for transparency
    plt.plot(lr.coef_,alpha=0.4,linestyle='none',marker='o',markersize=7,color='green',label='Linear Regression')
    plt.xlabel('Coefficient Index',fontsize=16)
    plt.ylabel('Coefficient Magnitude',fontsize=16)
    plt.legend(fontsize=13,loc=4)
    plt.show()

    # difference of lasso and ridge regression is that some of the coefficients can be zero i.e. some of the features are 
    # completely neglected
    lasso = Lasso()
    lasso.fit(X_train,y_train)
    train_score=lasso.score(X_train,y_train)
    test_score=lasso.score(X_test,y_test)
    coeff_used = np.sum(lasso.coef_!=0)
    print "training score:", train_score 
    print "test score: ", test_score
    print "number of features used: ", coeff_used
    lasso001 = Lasso(alpha=0.01, max_iter=10e5)
    lasso001.fit(X_train,y_train)
    train_score001=lasso001.score(X_train,y_train)
    test_score001=lasso001.score(X_test,y_test)
    coeff_used001 = np.sum(lasso001.coef_!=0)
    print "training score for alpha=0.01:", train_score001 
    print "test score for alpha =0.01: ", test_score001
    print "number of features used: for alpha =0.01:", coeff_used001
    lasso00001 = Lasso(alpha=0.0001, max_iter=10e5)
    lasso00001.fit(X_train,y_train)
    train_score00001=lasso00001.score(X_train,y_train)
    test_score00001=lasso00001.score(X_test,y_test)
    coeff_used00001 = np.sum(lasso00001.coef_!=0)
    print "training score for alpha=0.0001:", train_score00001 
    print "test score for alpha =0.0001: ", test_score00001
    print "number of features used: for alpha =0.0001:", coeff_used00001
    lr = LinearRegression()
    lr.fit(X_train,y_train)
    lr_train_score=lr.score(X_train,y_train)
    lr_test_score=lr.score(X_test,y_test)
    print "LR training score:", lr_train_score 
    print "LR test score: ", lr_test_score
    plt.figure (figsize= (12.8,9.6), dpi =100)
    plt.subplot(1,2,1)
    plt.plot(lasso.coef_,alpha=0.7,linestyle='none',marker='*',markersize=5,color='red',label=r'Lasso; $\alpha = 1$',zorder=7) # alpha here is for transparency
    plt.plot(lasso001.coef_,alpha=0.5,linestyle='none',marker='d',markersize=6,color='blue',label=r'Lasso; $\alpha = 0.01$') # alpha here is for transparency
    plt.xlabel('Coefficient Index',fontsize=16)
    plt.ylabel('Coefficient Magnitude',fontsize=16)
    plt.legend(fontsize=13,loc=4)
    plt.subplot(1,2,2)
    plt.plot(lasso.coef_,alpha=0.7,linestyle='none',marker='*',markersize=5,color='red',label=r'Lasso; $\alpha = 1$',zorder=7) # alpha here is for transparency
    plt.plot(lasso001.coef_,alpha=0.5,linestyle='none',marker='d',markersize=6,color='blue',label=r'Lasso; $\alpha = 0.01$') # alpha here is for transparency
    plt.plot(lasso00001.coef_,alpha=0.8,linestyle='none',marker='v',markersize=6,color='black',label=r'Lasso; $\alpha = 0.00001$') # alpha here is for transparency
    plt.plot(lr.coef_,alpha=0.7,linestyle='none',marker='o',markersize=5,color='green',label='Linear Regression',zorder=2)
    plt.xlabel('Coefficient Index',fontsize=16)
    plt.ylabel('Coefficient Magnitude',fontsize=16)
    plt.legend(fontsize=13,loc=4)
    plt.tight_layout()
    plt.show()

PS: Please ignore the indentation.

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You should probably post your code, since you have a negative score which is not possible if the score is R-squared.

The code on the link you provided uses sklearn's .score() function which computes R-squared of the fit. The R-squared metric ranges from 0 to 1 and shows the percentage of the variation explained by the model. This means that an R-squared of 1 means your model perfectly fits the data. After you fix the code so that there is no negative values, taking a look at the R-square should give you enough to understand when it is over-fitting and under-fitting.

Hint: if you have significantly higher R-squared on your training data than test data, it means that the model is ovefitting. Good luck!

Edit: turns out, R-squared can be negative, it means that it performs very poorly! If you just aim to find the best alpha, i suggest you use LassoCV which finds the alpha that optimises the model using cross validation, there is sk-learn implementation.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you very much for kindly going to the link to check the code and then answering me. I will post my code! $\endgroup$ – tsumaranaina Jan 9 '19 at 22:56
  • $\begingroup$ Hmm... there is a note in the documentation and it seems that it can actually be negative. "This is not a symmetric function. Unlike most other scores, R^2 score may be negative (it need not actually be the square of a quantity R)." $\endgroup$ – tsumaranaina Jan 10 '19 at 23:05
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I found this to be a good answer to my question. http://www.fairlynerdy.com/what-is-r-squared/

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