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I'm reading through Hands-On Machine Learning with Scikit-learn and Tensorflow by Geron. I am creating a simple polynomial regression using sklearn's PolynomialFeatures.

First, I create an X and y set using numpy random numbers with quadratic shape:

m = 100
X = 6 * np.random.rand(m, 1) - 3
y = 0.5 * X**2 + X + 2 + np.random.randn(m, 1)

Then I plot the scatterplot distribution:

plt.plot(X, y, "b.")
plt.xlabel("$x_1$", fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)
plt.axis([-3, 3, 0, 10])
plt.show()

Then I use PolynomialFeatures to add the 2nd degree:

poly_features = PolynomialFeatures(degree=2, include_bias=False)
X_poly = poly_features.fit_transform(X)

Then I fit the LinearRegression:

lin_reg = LinearRegression()
lin_reg.fit(X_poly, y)
lin_reg.intercept_, lin_reg.coef_

Then I plot the same distribution with the quadratic regression line. My question is with the following code:

X_new=np.linspace(-3, 3, 100).reshape(100, 1)
X_new_poly = poly_features.transform(X_new)
y_new = lin_reg.predict(X_new_poly)
plt.plot(X, y, "b.")
plt.plot(X_new, y_new, "r-", linewidth=2, label="Predictions")
plt.xlabel("$x_1$", fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)
plt.legend(loc="upper left", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([-3, 3, 0, 10])
plt.show()

Why do we create X_new (np.linspace(-3,3,100).reshape(100,1) and X_new_poly? Why does this not work with the X_poly that I've already created? (I tried plotting it with the original X_poly and it definitely does not work. It's just oscillating lines up and down over and over. I'm just not sure why this is the case.)

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2 Answers 2

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You could use X and lin_reg.predict(X_poly), but

  1. The plot will put those points in the order they appear in X, and since you're using a line connector it will appear to jump all over the place. You could fix this by using a scatterplot instead.
  2. It's vaguely disingenuous to use the training set's x-values for plotting the fitted curve; using np.linspace to get equally-spaced x-values is preferable (even if your original X was randomly generated and should fill the space reasonably well).
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Seaborn regplot is my go to for visualisation. It allows to plot polynomial univariate regression. The degree parameter can be set with the keyword 'order', you can also specify the kind of taget (regression or classification with the keyword logistic).

It is very easy to use:

import numpy as np import seaborn as sns

m = 100
X = 6 * np.random.rand(m, 1) - 3
y = 0.5 * X**2 + X + 2 + np.random.randn(m, 1)

sns.regplot(x=X,
            y=y,
            order=2,
            line_kws={'color':'red'}
           );

gives:

enter image description here

Then it behaves like a plt plot, you can customise it with legend / titles.

The main drawback is that you don't get an object model and if you wnat to do some predict you need to build the model on the side.

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