From the book "Deep Learning and Convolutional Neural Networks for Medical Image Computing"

As we learned about the current state of research on deep learning, I was surprised to find that other investigators had used convolutional neural networks, one type of deep learning, in the past [22, 23]. But there seemed to be something different about the most recent crop of deep learning algorithms. They routinely used GPU processing to accelerate training by as much as a factor of 40-fold. They also used multiple convolution layers and multiple data reduction layers.

does 40-fold mean "K-Fold Cross-Validation"?

  • $\begingroup$ Would you mind accepting the answer if it answered your question? $\endgroup$ – Nikos Jul 17 '19 at 6:40

The author here refers to a comparison between older and most recent implementations of deep learning algorithms regarding execution time (accelerating processing speed). It just means that "they used GPUs and achieved x40 better execution time". It has nothing to do with K-Folds.

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