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I am doing image classificaition, and to do this I have built the following neural network:

def Network(input_shape, num_classes, regl2 = 0.0001, lr=0.0001):

model = Sequential()

# C1 Convolutional Layer 
model.add(Conv2D(filters=96, input_shape=input_shape, kernel_size=(3,3),\
                 strides=(1,1), padding='valid'))
model.add(Activation('relu'))
# Pooling
model.add(MaxPooling2D(pool_size=(2,2), strides=(2,2), padding='valid'))
# Batch Normalisation before passing it to the next layer
model.add(BatchNormalization())

# C2 Convolutional Layer
model.add(Conv2D(filters=384, kernel_size=(3,3), strides=(1,1), padding='valid'))
model.add(Activation('relu'))
# Pooling
model.add(MaxPooling2D(pool_size=(2,2), strides=(2,2), padding='valid'))
# Batch Normalisation
model.add(BatchNormalization())

# C3 Convolutional Layer
model.add(Conv2D(filters=768, kernel_size=(3,3), strides=(1,1), padding='valid'))
model.add(Activation('relu'))
# Batch Normalisation
model.add(BatchNormalization())

# C4 Convolutional Layer
model.add(Conv2D(filters=384, kernel_size=(3,3), strides=(1,1), padding='valid'))
model.add(Activation('relu'))
# Batch Normalisation
model.add(BatchNormalization())

# C5 Convolutional Layer
model.add(Conv2D(filters=256, kernel_size=(3,3), strides=(1,1), padding='valid'))
model.add(Activation('relu'))
# Pooling
model.add(MaxPooling2D(pool_size=(2,2), strides=(2,2), padding='valid'))
# Batch Normalisation
model.add(BatchNormalization())

# C6 Convolutional Layer
model.add(Conv2D(filters=256, kernel_size=(3,3), strides=(1,1), padding='valid'))
model.add(Activation('relu'))
# Pooling
model.add(MaxPooling2D(pool_size=(2,2), strides=(2,2), padding='valid'))
# Batch Normalisation
model.add(BatchNormalization())

# C7 Convolutional Layer
model.add(Conv2D(filters=256, kernel_size=(3,3), strides=(1,1), padding='valid'))
model.add(Activation('relu'))
# Pooling
model.add(MaxPooling2D(pool_size=(2,2), strides=(2,2), padding='valid'))
# Batch Normalisation
model.add(BatchNormalization())

# Flatten
model.add(Flatten())

flatten_shape = (input_shape[0]*input_shape[1]*input_shape[2],)

# D1 Dense Layer
model.add(Dense(4096, input_shape=flatten_shape, kernel_regularizer=regularizers.l2(regl2)))
model.add(Activation('relu'))
# Dropout
model.add(Dropout(0.4))
# Batch Normalisation
model.add(BatchNormalization())

# D2 Dense Layer
model.add(Dense(4096, kernel_regularizer=regularizers.l2(regl2)))
model.add(Activation('relu'))
# Dropout
model.add(Dropout(0.4))
# Batch Normalisation
model.add(BatchNormalization())

# D3 Dense Layer
model.add(Dense(1000,kernel_regularizer=regularizers.l2(regl2)))
model.add(Activation('relu'))
# Dropout
model.add(Dropout(0.4))
# Batch Normalisation
model.add(BatchNormalization())

# Output Layer
model.add(Dense(num_classes))
model.add(Activation('softmax'))

# Compile

adam = optimizers.Adam(lr=lr)
model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy', optimizer=adam, metrics=['accuracy'])

return model

  # create the model
  model = Network(input_shape,num_classes)
  model.summary()

it works good enough, but I would like to increase its performances.

How could I modify it to do so?

I was thinking about adding layers, which should give better performances, but I haven' t understand well if I should add convolutional layers or dense layers. Moreover I would like to find other ways to increase accuracy than simply adding layers.

Can somebody please help me?

Thanks in advance.

[EDIT] I am considering a training set of 1200 images, which represent 4 wheater conditions : Haze, Rainy, Snowy, Sunny.

With my model, the Test accuracy is 0.797500, and the Test loss is 1.881952.

I would like to increase more my accuracy, but I don' t have other ideas than adding convolutional layers. I could try to change the size of the kernels and other hyperparameters, but I have other ideas.

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  • $\begingroup$ It might help if you also share some details of your dataset - number of images you are using in particular. If it is not large enough, adding more layers may not always mean better results. Also, it is not very clear what you mean by "works well enough". What is training/validation performance like? A quantitative description is always better. And finally if your sole purpose is to do image recognition, make sure you look into "transfer learning" before building a model from scratch. $\endgroup$ – serali Dec 2 '19 at 16:56
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for answering. I have edited the question with more details. Regarding transfer learning, I would like to learn building a CNN which performs well also when created by scratch. Thanks again. $\endgroup$ – J.D. Dec 2 '19 at 17:22
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It sounds like the model is underfit; to verify this, you would check that training and testing accuracy are similar, but, both lower than desired.

One cause is likely the very low number of training images for a model of this complexity.

You could try augmenting the training set with transformations of those images, for example by rotating the images in the training set? (This was done in the original alexnet paper: http://papers.nips.cc/paper/4824-imagenet-classification-with-deep-convolutional-neural-networks.pdf see section 4.1 on p.5).

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