array(['Ruby on Rails', 'Ruby', 'AWS DynamoDB', 'Python', 'MySQL', 'Swift', 'Android', 'iOS', 'JavaScript', 'React Native', 'ReactJS', 'TypeScript', 'Vue.js', 'Webpack', 'Amazon Web Services(AWS)', 'Kubernetes', 'PHP', 'CI/CD', 'Java', 'C#', 'C', 'Node.js', 'REST API', 'Go', 'Redux-Saga', 'Redux.js', 'Babel', 'GraphQL', 'Tensorflow', 'PyTorch', 'Jenkins', 'Spring', 'Django', 'Git', 'AWS EC2', 'CSS', 'HTML', 'MongoDB', 'Docker', 'Scala', 'SQL', 'Embedded System', 'NLP', 'Apache', 'Kotlin', 'Angular', 'jQuery', 'C++', 'RxJS', 'AngularJS', 'Redis', 'Next.js', 'NoSQL', 'GCP(Google Cloud Platform)', 'Elasticsearch', 'OpenStack', 'JPA(Java Persistent API)', 'TCP/IP', 'Objective-C', 'Realm', 'Firebase', 'Ajax', 'Linux', 'PostgreSQL', 'ES6', 'AWS Lambda', 'HTML5', 'AWS S3', 'GitHub', 'RxSwift', 'Terraform', 'AWS EKS', 'AWS RDS', 'Microsoft Azure', 'Sass(SCSS)', 'CodeIgniter', 'Flask', 'Nuxt.js', 'Ansible', 'Spring Boot', 'Linux kernel', 'Apache Kafka', 'Deep Learning', 'Nginx', 'ActionScript', 'OOP', 'Shell', 'gulp', 'Celery', 'SQLAlchemy', 'ExpressJS', 'RxJava', 'Apache Spark', 'WebGL', 'OpenGL', 'Machine Learning', 'MSSQL(Microsoft SQL Server)', 'Database', 'styled-components', 'MVC', 'Retrofit', 'Machine Vision', 'Oracle', 'web3.js', 'R', 'AWS ElasticBeanstalk', 'Elastic Stack', 'Laravel', 'ASP.NET', 'Aurora DB', 'Redux-Observable', '.NET', 'AWS Backup', 'AWS CloudWatch', 'Kibana', 'Fluentd', 'Logstash', 'JSP', 'Bootstrap', 'Datadog', 'Rust', 'Azure', 'Apache Hadoop', 'AWS X-Ray', 'Memcached', 'Jest', 'Mocha', 'DRF(Django REST framework)', 'Spring Cloud', 'Data Analysys', 'Big Data', 'GitLab', 'Gradle', 'SQLite', 'Microsoft IIS', 'Unity', 'Electron', 'MariaDB', 'mSQL', 'gensim', 'Scikit-Learn', 'AWS Simple Queue Service(AWS SQS)', 'gRPC', 'Naver Cloud Platform', 'Ubuntu', 'Microservice Architecture', 'Apache ActiveMQ', 'Oracle Database', 'Apache Subversion(SVN)', 'Apache Tomcat', 'Red Hat Ceph Storage', 'Puppeteer', 'OpenLayers', 'Vuex', 'Less.js', 'JIRA', 'Keras', 'NCP(Naver Cloud Platform)', 'NestJS', 'PKI(Public key infrastructure)', 'AWS ECS', 'Hibernate', 'UML', 'BitBucket', 'Arduino', 'Raspberry Pi', 'RabbitMQ', 'Capistrano', 'Bamboo', 'MVP', 'OkHttp', 'Cocos2d', 'Ethereum', 'Blockchain', 'DSP(Digital Signal Processing)', 'D3.js', 'Cocoa', 'Axios', 'Ionic', 'WPF', 'AWS IAM', 'Shell Script', 'Responsive Web', 'Canvas', 'ThreeJS', 'Apache ZooKeeper', 'Pandas', 'Spring Batch', 'JUnit', 'Spring Data JPA', 'ASP', 'Grunt', 'WordPress', 'MyBatis', 'AWS ElastiCache', 'Apache HTTP Server', 'AWS Security Hub', 'Google API', 'Qt', 'CAD', 'GatsbyJS', 'PostCSS', 'Socket.IO', 'Backbone.js', 'Azure Linux Virtual Machines', 'Heroku', 'CUDA', 'IOCP', 'Unix', 'CocoaPods', 'MVVM(Model-View-ViewModel)', 'Google Firebase Crashlytics', 'Google Cloud Platform', 'Windows kernel', 'OpenCV', 'Unreal Engine', 'Google Cloud SDK', 'RxAndroid', 'Windows Embedded', 'Entity Framework', 'Packer', 'Nexus', 'Consul', 'Selenium', 'Jekyll', 'XML', 'Dependency Lookup', 'RxKotlin', 'Expo', 'Sketch', 'InVision', 'Azure Text Analytics', 'Google Dialogflow', 'Google Cloud Natural Language'], dtype=object)

let say I have this array list
if I want to group them by similar things is there any pretrained language model to do this job easier?

for example
pytorch and tensorflow should be in one group because most of the deep learning people are using pytorch or tensorflow


3 Answers 3


There will not be any pre-trained models to cluster these words.

In fact, in order to build your own clustering model you will need more metadata about each observation/word in your array.

At the moment any model would only be able to "see" the name of the package/software in your array. So the best you could hope for is a model that clusters these words based on their spellings.

Now let's pretend you find a brief description of each software, now you could do a bit more. With this longer text you could use supervised or unsupervised methods to cluster these softwares into groups (see topic models, k-means etc) based upon similar words in the descriptions.

Long story short, there is not a pre-built model to do this, and to build one yourself you're going to need more information about each observation.


By using SpaCy's pretrained XLNet's model, I got some interesting similarities. I used this model because it has been trained on a large scale corpus which has a decent probability to contain these domain-specific terms in the first place. But as @yohanes-alfredo points out, the only way the similarities will be meaningful is if the data the model was trained on is specific to your domain. And given that specific domain, it is quite unlikely to find what you're looking for out-of-the-box

Top 20 most similar:

RxSwift ~ RxKotlin -> 0.9946681187244761
RxJS ~ RxJava -> 0.994435118373502
GCP(Google Cloud Platform) ~ NCP(Naver Cloud Platform) -> 0.9940396059556209
AWS EC2 ~ AWS ECS -> 0.9938487260023671
PKI(Public key infrastructure) ~ AWS ElastiCache -> 0.9935761603450172
GCP(Google Cloud Platform) ~ DSP(Digital Signal Processing) -> 0.9933073878775022
Elasticsearch ~ Elastic Stack -> 0.9931518747103965
AWS EC2 ~ AWS S3 -> 0.993027042898852
PKI(Public key infrastructure) ~ DSP(Digital Signal Processing) -> 0.9929990959502415
Vue.js ~ Node.js -> 0.9929247105854434
AWS Lambda ~ AWS Security Hub -> 0.9929128319080022
NCP(Naver Cloud Platform) ~ DSP(Digital Signal Processing) -> 0.9929057627676084
SQLite ~ mSQL -> 0.9926240872662073
DRF(Django REST framework) ~ DSP(Digital Signal Processing) -> 0.9925413265716948
Vue.js ~ Nuxt.js -> 0.9924630128845782
Node.js ~ Nuxt.js -> 0.9921168820574993
jQuery ~ SQLAlchemy -> 0.9920563002593914
GCP(Google Cloud Platform) ~ PKI(Public key infrastructure) -> 0.9919737922646894
NCP(Naver Cloud Platform) ~ PKI(Public key infrastructure) -> 0.9918400179111244
AWS EKS ~ AWS RDS -> 0.9916245806804818

Top 20 least similar:

HTML ~ Redux-Observable -> 0.816905641379557
HTML ~ Apache ZooKeeper -> 0.8168242467737211
HTML ~ CocoaPods -> 0.8166225352469929
HTML ~ GitHub -> 0.8161220718380207
HTML ~ AngularJS -> 0.8158469544232246
Ruby ~ WordPress -> 0.8154201995919186
Node.js ~ HTML -> 0.813844641023879
HTML ~ GatsbyJS -> 0.8132731528363577
Vue.js ~ HTML -> 0.8119781923186943
Blockchain ~ WordPress -> 0.8116576909602091
HTML ~ Sass(SCSS) -> 0.811630090065908
HTML ~ Nuxt.js -> 0.8109416869322942
Firebase ~ WordPress -> 0.8097501937747014
Java ~ WordPress -> 0.8093956474318938
Linux ~ WordPress -> 0.8089260791066558
Laravel ~ WordPress -> 0.8082594491867635
Redux.js ~ HTML -> 0.8079252976547562
WordPress ~ InVision -> 0.8077375338404283
HTML ~ DRF(Django REST framework) -> 0.8070652034839725
MySQL ~ WordPress -> 0.8070553577302257

My take on it is that first of all, all these terms have rather high similarities, probably because they are all part of a similar generic domain. Second, the top similarities seem to be quite influenced by string similarities altogether. Indeed, if you look at the nearest neighbours, they don't seem to be so related to the concept itself. For instance, here are the top 5 neighbours of "CI/CD":


CI/CD ~ CI/CD -> 1.0000001314622171
CI/CD ~ CUDA -> 0.9898242832223353
CI/CD ~ gensim -> 0.9896900420172526
CI/CD ~ SQLite -> 0.9890342868864949
CI/CD ~ mSQL -> 0.9883379829169077

However, it's a start. Also, SpaCy offers different models that you could experient with.


Without any context on the language that would near impossible to do. With only that the least you could do is using levenshtein distance and compute clusters based on that. Think of it like this supposed a normal people without prior knowledge of software engineering, I don't think people would even be able to do the task you asked. How people could know if pytorch and tensorflow is related without prior context.

One other way you could do this is to do unsupervised training it using texts from StackOverflow, and after training extract the embedding for those words, compute similarity/distances and use clustering methods to generate clusters.

  • $\begingroup$ they know they can't do it out of the box, that's why they're asking whether there are pre-trained models that can do it $\endgroup$ Commented Dec 9, 2019 at 11:01
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ The answer from my side is that it needs at least training of embeddings on the specific (not necessarily specific) topics otherwise it is impossible. Language need context. $\endgroup$ Commented Dec 9, 2019 at 11:23
  • $\begingroup$ indeed, your answer is fair $\endgroup$ Commented Dec 9, 2019 at 11:45

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