I am trying to modify the code of this repo to build a recommender system based on BPR triplet loss.

In particular I modified the TripletLoss layer class like this

class TripletLossLayer(Layer):
        Layer object to minimise the triplet loss.
        Here we implement the Bayesian Personal Ranking triplet loss.
    def __init__(self, **kwargs):
        super(TripletLossLayer, self).__init__(**kwargs)

    def bpr_triplet_loss(self, inputs):
            Bayesian Personal Ranking triplet loss.
        anchor, positive, negative = inputs
        p_score = K.dot(anchor,K.transpose(positive))
        n_score = K.dot(anchor,K.transpose(negative))
        return (1.0 - K.sigmoid(p_score - n_score))

    def call(self, inputs):
        loss = self.bpr_triplet_loss(inputs)
        return loss

class ScoreLayer(Layer):
        Layer object to predict positive matches.
    def __init__(self, **kwargs):
        super(ScoreLayer, self).__init__(**kwargs)

    def rec_similarity(self, inputs):
            rec_similarity function
        anchor, item = inputs
        score = K.dot(anchor,K.transpose(item))
        return score

    def call(self, inputs):
        pred = self.rec_similarity(inputs)
        return pred

and the model is defined through a function

def build_model(n_users, n_items, emb_dim = 30):
        Define the Keras Model for training 


            n_users : int
                        number of users

            n_items : int
                        number of items

            user_features : list of str
                                list of categorical features (columns of df_users)

            item_features : list of str
                                list of categorical features (columns of df_items)

            emb_dim : int
                        dimension of the embedding space

    n_user_features = 3
    n_item_features = 18

    ### Input Layers

    user_input = Input((n_user_features,), name='user_input')
    positive_item_input = Input((n_item_features,), name='pos_item_input')
    negative_item_input = Input((n_item_features,), name='neg_item_input')

    inputs = [user_input, positive_item_input, negative_item_input]

    ### Embedding Layers

    user_emb = Embedding(n_users, emb_dim, input_length=n_user_features, name='user_emb')
    # Positive and negative items will share the same embedding
    item_emb = Embedding(n_items, emb_dim, input_length=n_item_features, name='item_emb')
    # Layer to convert embedding vectors in the same dimensional vectors
    vec_conv64 = Dense(64, name = 'dense_vec64', activation = 'relu')
    vec_conv32 = Dense(32, name = 'dense_vec32', activation = 'relu')
    vec_conv = Dense(emb_dim, name = 'dense_vec', activation = 'softmax')

    # Anchor
    a = Flatten(name = 'flatten_usr_emb')(user_emb(user_input))
    a = Dense(emb_dim, name = 'dense_user', activation = 'softmax')(a)

    # Positive
    p = Flatten(name = 'flatten_pos_emb')(item_emb(positive_item_input))
    p = vec_conv64(p)
    p = vec_conv32(p)
    p = Dropout(0.5)(p)
    p = vec_conv(p)

    # Negative
    n = Flatten(name = 'flatten_neg_emb')(item_emb(negative_item_input))
    n = vec_conv64(n)
    n = vec_conv32(n)
    n = Dropout(0.5)(n)
    n = vec_conv(n)

    # Score layers
    p_rec_score = ScoreLayer(name='pos_recommendation_score')([a, p])
    n_rec_score = ScoreLayer(name='neg_recommendation_score')([a, n])

    # TripletLoss Layer
    loss_layer = TripletLossLayer(name='triplet_loss_layer')([a, p, n])

    # Connect the inputs with the outputs
    network_train = Model(inputs=inputs, outputs=loss_layer, name = 'training_model')

    network_predict = Model(inputs=inputs[:-1], outputs=p_rec_score, name = 'inference_model')

    # return the model
    return network_train, network_predict

by printing network_train.layers and network_predict.layers one can check they share the layers as they should.

My problem comes at training.

I build the batch as follows

def get_triplets_hard(batch_size, X_usr, X_item, df, return_cache = False):
        Returns the list of three arrays to feed the model.

            batch_size : int
                            size of the batch.

            X_usr : numpy array of shape (n_users, n_user_features)
                            array of user metadata.

            X_item : numpy array of shape (n_items, n_item_features)
                            array of item metadata.

            df : Pandas DataFrame
                    dataframe containing user-item ratings.

            return_cache : bool
                            parameter to triggere whether we want the list of ids corresponding to 
                            default: False

            triplets : list of numpy arrays
                        list containing 3 tensors A,P,N corresponding to:
                            - Anchor A : (batch_size, n_user_features)
                            - Positive P : (batch_size, n_item_features)
                            - Negative N : (batch_size, n_item_features)
    # constant values
    n_user_features = X_usr.shape[1]
    n_item_features = X_item.shape[1]

    # define user_list
    user_list = list(df.index.values)

    # initialise result
    triplets = [np.zeros((batch_size, n_user_features)), # anchor
                np.zeros((batch_size, n_item_features)), # pos
                np.zeros((batch_size, n_item_features))  # neg
    user_ids = []
    p_ids = []
    n_ids = []

    for i in range(batch_size):
        # pick one random user for anchor
        anchor_id = random.choice(user_list)

        # all possible positive/negative samples for selected anchor
        p_item_ids = get_pos(df, anchor_id)
        n_item_ids = get_neg(df, anchor_id)

        # pick one of the positve ids
            positive_id = random.choice(p_item_ids)
        except IndexError:
            positive_id = 0


        # pick the most similar negative id
            n_min = np.argmin([(cosine_dist(X_item[positive_id-1], X_item[k-1])) for k in n_item_ids])
            negative_id = n_item_ids[n_min]
                negative_id = random.choice(n_item_ids)
            except IndexError:
                negative_id = 0


        # define triplet
        triplets[0][i,:] = X_usr[anchor_id-1][:]

        if positive_id == 0:
            triplets[1][i,:] = np.zeros((n_item_features,))
            triplets[1][i,:] = X_item[positive_id-1][:]

        if negative_id == 0:
            triplets[2][i,:] = np.zeros((n_item_features,))
            triplets[2][i,:] = X_item[negative_id-1][:]

    if return_cache:
        cache = {'users': user_ids, 'positive': p_ids, 'negative': n_ids}
        return triplets, cache

    return triplets

and then my hyperparameters are

# Hyper parameters
evaluate_every = 100 # interval for evaluating on one-shot tasks
batch_size = 64
n_iter = 100000 # No. of training iterations
n_val = 100 # how many one-shot tasks to validate on

I make use of network_train.train_on_batch(get_triplets_hard(batch_size, X_usr, X_item, df)) to train my model, but the loss never goes down. Any Idea? I am getting frustrated as I do not see where to improve/change the model or the hyperparameter choice.


1 Answer 1


Interestingly the problem was a vanishing gradient one: I substituted loss with logloss and (even if slowly) I managed to train the model. I leave it here in case someone may have the same problem with other implementations.


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