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I am currently working on dynamic modeling and exploring different techniques and algorithms to deploy a dynamic time-series black-box model.

My data looks like the following: I have 7 inputs and 1 output (MISO system), the measurements contain delay and white noises already. I also separate the training and test/validation data into 80/20 from 1800 data:

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I have also noticed that the order estimation for NARX modeling is very important. Thus I used arxstruc and selstruc functions to select model orders, which is not very accurate. However, it is computationally impossible to find any nonlinear regressors and narxnet cannot specify different model order in regard to multiple inputs, which makes the model prediction to suffer, even worst than normal neural network without time-series.

Do you have any suggestions, how I can find accurate estimated model order, especially for nonlinear regressors? Are there any existing algorithms other than AIC and IV method, which I tried both of them? I have tried using these kernels and methodologies to estimate the NARX model parameter. For validations I used compare function and NRMSE to display the goodness of the fit:

  • Treepartition: around 53% NRMSE
Treepartition= nlarx(train_data,model_order, treepartition);
  • Sigmoidnet: around 65% NRMSE
NL = sigmoidnet('NumberOfUnits',30);
opt = nlarxOptions('SearchMethod','gna');
opt.Regularization.Lambda = 5e-8;
Sigmoid = nlarx(train_data,model_order,NL,opt);
  • NARX Feedforward Neural network, using nlarx function: around 45% NRMSE
setdemorandstream(491218381);
ff = feedforwardnet([10 20]);
ff.layers{2}.transferFcn = 'radbas';
ff.trainParam.epochs = 50;
ff.divideFcn = 'dividerand'  % Divide data randomly
ff.divideMode = 'sample';  % Divide up every sample
ff.divideParam.trainRatio = 0.7;
ff.divideParam.valRatio = 0.15;
ff.divideParam.testRatio = 0.15;
FFNN = nlarx(train_data,model_order, neuralnet(ff));
  • Cascade Neural network: around 57% NRMSE
net = cascadeforwardnet([20]);
net_estimator = neuralnet(net);
Cascade_50 = nlarx(train_80, nn_50, net_estimator);
  • Hammerstein-Wiener model: around 49% NRMSE
opt = nlhwOptions();
opt.SearchMethod = 'gna'; %Gauss-Newton search
opt.SearchOptions.MaxIterations = 20;
opt.Regularization.Lambda = 1e-8;
HWOptSigW = nlhw(train_data,model_order, sigmoidnet, wavenet, opt); % 51.7% NRMSE
HWOptSig = nlhw(train_data,model_order, sigmoidnet, sigmoidnet, opt); % 47% NRMSE
  • Normal Neural network without timeseries: around 39% NRMSE
setdemorandstream(491218381);
trainFcn = 'trainlm';  % Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation.
hiddenLayerSize = [10 20];
net_ANN = fitnet(hiddenLayerSize,trainFcn);
net_ANN.divideFcn = 'dividerand' % Divide data randomly
net_ANN.divideMode = 'sample';  % Divide up every sample
net_ANN.divideParam.trainRatio = 70/100;
net_ANN.divideParam.valRatio = 15/100;
net_ANN.divideParam.testRatio = 15/100;
net_ANN.layers{2}.transferFcn = 'radbas';
net_ANN.performFcn = 'mse';
% Train the Network
[net_ANN,tr] = train(net_ANN,x,t);
  • Timeseries NARX Neural network, using narxnet function: around 12% NRMSE
setdemorandstream(491218381);
trainFcn = 'trainlm';  % Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation.
inputDelays = 1:2;
feedbackDelays = 1;
hiddenLayerSize = [10 20];
net_NARX = narxnet(inputDelays,feedbackDelays,hiddenLayerSize,'open',trainFcn);
net_NARX.divideFcn = 'dividerand';
net_NARX.divideMode = 'time'
net_NARX.divideParam.trainRatio = 0.7
net_NARX.divideParam.valRatio = 0.15
net_NARX.divideParam.testRatio = 0.15
net_NARX.layers{2}.transferFcn = 'radbas';
net_NARX.performFcn = 'mse'; 
% Train the Network
[net_NARX,tr] = train(net_NARX,x,t,xi,ai);

So in conclusion, the best NRMSE result is 65% from Sigmoidnet, it's R^2 is 0.88 and RMSE is 72.87. The timeseries NARX Neural network, using narxnet function performs miserably due to the orders of the fixed input. But other neural network models don't perform better either. As well as the Hammerstein-Wiener model although it contains sigmoid functions.

Here are my questions:

  1. Do you have any suggestions on how I can improve the overall prediction accuracy of the dynamic models?
  2. Why NARX neural network and Hammerstein-Wiener model perform so badly?
  3. Do I need more data to train?
  4. How I can find accurate estimated model order, especially for nonlinear regressors?
  5. And do I have an option to deploy the matlab script into Simulink? I realized that there were not many degrees of freedom to configure the order of the different inputs using the system identification toolbox and other neural network toolboxes.

Thank you for reading so patiently and I am looking forward to your kind suggestions and helps :)

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