0
$\begingroup$

LightFm has two methods to predict: predict() and predict_rank(). The evaluation function precision_at_k is based on the predict_rank function. Since I have many items to rank for each user, the predict method is more suitable/faster. Hence, I tried to replicate the precision@k score resulting from the precision_at_k method using the predict method.

Clearly, whether one is using predict_rank or predict should not change the precision@k score, but I was unable to replicate the score I get from precision_at_k (based on predict_rank) with the predict method.

In fact the evaluation scores from the predict method are always worse than the evaluation scores derived by the precision_at_k method included in the package. Why is that?

Below is an example using open source data. For simplicity, I'm using only a fraction of the data, a basic model without features, known positives are not removed (train_data argument is not specified in precision_at_k).

Why is this important: I want to calculate ndcg for evaluation and if I can replicate the prec@k score with predict, I know the post-processing of the predictions is correctly set up and I can just change the metric.

from lightfm import LightFM
    from scipy.sparse import coo_matrix as sp
    import numpy as np
    import pandas as pd
    import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
    import os
    import zipfile
    import csv
    import requests
    import json
    from itertools import islice
    from lightfm.data import Dataset
    from lightfm import LightFM
    from lightfm.evaluation import precision_at_k
    from lightfm.cross_validation import random_train_test_split 

   ######################################
   #                                   
   #  Fetching the training data               
   #                                   
   ######################################

def _download(url: str, dest_path: str):

    req = requests.get(url, stream=True)
    req.raise_for_status()

    with open(dest_path, "wb") as fd:
        for chunk in req.iter_content(chunk_size=2 ** 20):
            fd.write(chunk)

def get_data():

    ratings_url = ("http://www2.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/" "~cziegler/BX/BX-CSV-Dump.zip")

    if not os.path.exists("data"):
        os.makedirs("data")

        _download(ratings_url, "data/data.zip")

    with zipfile.ZipFile("data/data.zip") as archive:
        return (
            csv.DictReader(
                (x.decode("utf-8", "ignore") for x in archive.open("BX-Book-Ratings.csv")),
                delimiter=";",
            ),
            csv.DictReader(
                (x.decode("utf-8", "ignore") for x in archive.open("BX-Books.csv")), delimiter=";"
            ),
            csv.DictReader(
                (x.decode("utf-8", "ignore") for x in archive.open("BX-Users.csv")), delimiter=";"
            ),
        )

def get_ratings():
    return get_data()[0]

def get_book_features():
    return get_data()[1]

def get_user_features():
    return get_data()[2]

# small dataset
udf = pd.DataFrame([x['User-ID'] for x in get_ratings()])
iid = pd.DataFrame([x['ISBN'] for x in get_ratings()])
frames = [udf, iid]

# susample user list
user_set = set([x['User-ID'] for x in get_ratings()])
user_samples = list(user_set)[:800]

train_df = pd.concat(frames, axis=1)
train_df.columns = ['user_id','item_id']
print(train_df.shape)
train_df = train_df[train_df.user_id.isin(user_samples)]
print(train_df.shape)

book_features = [(x['ISBN'], [x['Book-Author']]) for x in get_book_features() if x['ISBN'] in train_df.item_id.unique().tolist()]
user_features = [(x['User-ID'], [x['Age']]) for x in get_user_features() if x['User-ID'] in train_df.user_id.unique().tolist()]

dataset = Dataset()
dataset.fit(train_df.user_id.tolist(),
            train_df.item_id.tolist())
num_users, num_items = dataset.interactions_shape()
print('Num users: {}, num_items {}.'.format(num_users, num_items))

dataset.fit_partial(users=train_df.user_id.tolist(),
                    items=train_df.item_id.tolist(),
                    item_features=[j[0] for i,j in book_features],
                    user_features=[j[0] for i,j in user_features])

#######################
#                                                
#  Building the Model         
#                                               
######################

dataset = Dataset()
dataset.fit(train_df.user_id.unique().tolist(),
            train_df.item_id.unique().tolist())
num_users, num_items = dataset.interactions_shape()
print('Num users: {}, num_items {}.'.format(num_users, num_items))

dataset.fit_partial(users=train_df.user_id.unique().tolist(),
                    items=train_df.item_id.unique().tolist(),
                    item_features=[j[0] for i,j in book_features],
                    user_features=[j[0] for i,j in user_features])

(interactions, weights) = dataset.build_interactions(((i,j) for i,j in zip(train_df.user_id, train_df.item_id)))
print(repr(interactions))

(train, test) = random_train_test_split(interactions=interactions, test_percentage=0.2)

item_features = dataset.build_item_features((book_features))
print(repr(item_features))

user_features1 = dataset.build_user_features((user_features))
print(repr(user_features1))

mapp = dataset.mapping()
dict_user_id = mapp[0]
dict_item_id = mapp[2]

user_list = list(dict_user_id.keys())
items_list = list(dict_item_id.keys())
items =np.array(items_list)

data = {
         'train_cols': items,
         "train": train,
         'test_cols': items,
         "test": test,
         "item_features": item_features, 
         "user_features": user_features1
         }

#############################
#                               
#  Training the Model       
#                               
#############################

model = LightFM(loss='warp')

model.fit(data['train'], 
          #item_features=data['item_features'], 
          #user_features=data['user_features']
         )

### model performnce evaluation
pak = precision_at_k(model,
                      test_interactions = data['test'],
                      #train_interactions = data['train'],
                      #item_features=data['item_features'], 
                      #user_features=data['user_features']
                    ).mean()
print("precision@10 : {}".format(pak))

This gives precision@10 : 0.004322766792029142. Under the hood, the precision@k used the predict_rank method which generates the precision@k like this:

ranks = model.predict_rank(test_interactions=data['test'],
                           #train_interactions=data['train'],
                           #item_features=data['item_features'], 
                           #user_features=data['user_features'],
                           num_threads=32,
                           check_intersections=True)
ranks.data = np.less(ranks.data, 10, ranks.data)
precision = np.squeeze(np.array(ranks.sum(axis=1))) / 10
precision = precision[data['test'].getnnz(axis=1) > 0]
print('prec@10: {}'.format(precision.mean()))

Just to demonstrate that this gives precision@10 : 0.004322766792029142.

If I now replicate the precision@k using the predict method I get a different result.

############################################
#                               
# Replicate precision using the predict method      
#                               
############################################
mapp = dataset.mapping()
dict_user_id = mapp[0]
dict_item_id = mapp[2]

d_user_pred = {}

for user in dict_user_id.keys():
    d_user_pred[user] = []
       
for uid, i in dict_user_id.items():   
    known_positives_ids = data['train_cols'][data['train'].tocsr()[i].indices]
    #print('known positives:{}'.format(known_positives_ids))
    scores = model.predict(user_ids = i, 
                           item_ids = np.arange(len(dict_item_id)),
                           #user_features=user_features,
                           #item_features=item_features
                          )

    # get top recommendations
    top_items_ids = data['train_cols'][np.argsort(-scores)]

    # exclude known positives from recommendations
    top_items_ids = np.array(list(set(top_items_ids) - set(known_positives_ids)))
    print('top_items_ids:{}'.format(top_items_ids[:5]))
    d_user_pred[uid] = top_items_ids

##################################
#
# Precision@k evaluation
#
##################################

# get predictions df
df  = pd.DataFrame.from_dict(d_user_pred, orient='index').iloc[:,:20]
df['user_id'] = df.index
df = df.melt(id_vars='user_id')
df.columns = ['user_id','rank','item_id']
pred_df = df.groupby('user_id').aggregate(lambda tdf: tdf.tolist()).reset_index()
pred_df.columns = ['user_id','rank','predictions']

# get ground truth df
t = pd.DataFrame(data['test'].todense(), columns=items_list)
t['user_id'] = user_list
t = t.melt(id_vars='user_id')
t = t[t.value==1].drop('value',axis=1)
t.columns = ['user_id','item_id']
actual_df = t.groupby('user_id').aggregate(lambda tdf: tdf.tolist()).reset_index()
actual_df.columns = ['user_id','actual']

# generate eval_df
eval_df = pred_df.merge(actual_df,on='user_id',how='left')
eval_df = eval_df[eval_df.actual.notnull()]

def precision(actual, predictions, k):
    """ Fraction of retrieved documents @k that are relevant."""
    return len(set(actual) & set(predictions[:k])) / k

eval_df['prec'] = eval_df.apply(lambda row : precision(actual=row['actual'], 
                                                       predictions=row['predictions'], 
                                                       k=10), axis = 1) 
eval_df.prec.mean()

Which gives 0.0005763688760806917.

So in summary, the predict_rank gives precision@k score = 0.004322766792029142 and the predict method gives precision@k score=0.0005763688760806917. Why is that?

$\endgroup$
0
$\begingroup$

Using

top_items_ids = [item_id for item_id in top_items_ids if item_id not in known_positives_ids]

instead of

top_items_ids = np.array(list(set(top_items_ids) - set(known_positives_ids)))

resolves the discrepancy.

$\endgroup$

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.