I have started learning Tensorflow V1, and try to implement a 4-layer MLP model with Batch Normalization. But once I invoke the BN() function into the model, it will report

InvalidArgumentError: You must feed a value for placeholder tensor 'X' with dtype float and shape [12288,?] [[node X (defined at C:\Users\To find Berlin\Desktop\DL and RL\DL\C2W3\test3.py:26) ]]

The wired point is, this error occurs at initialization step, after create the graph. If I understand right, the initialization step doesn't need any input to feed in. Only if you start to train the model, then you need to feed in inputs during each iteration.

My code as follows:

import math
import numpy as np
import h5py
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.python.framework import ops
from tf_utils import load_dataset, random_mini_batches, convert_to_one_hot, predict


X_train_orig, Y_train_orig, X_test_orig, Y_test_orig, classes = load_dataset()  
# X_train_orig.reshape(X_train_orig.shape[0],-1)  shape = (m,12288) 
X_train_flatten = X_train_orig.reshape(X_train_orig.shape[0],-1).T
X_test_flatten = X_test_orig.reshape(X_test_orig.shape[0], -1).T

X_train = X_train_flatten/255
X_test = X_test_flatten/255

Y_train = convert_to_one_hot(Y_train_orig, 6)
Y_test = convert_to_one_hot(Y_test_orig, 6)
# (Y_train.shape) -- (6, 1080)

# Step 1: Create a graph containing Tensors (Variables, Placeholders ...) and Operations (tf.matmul, tf.add, ...)
def create_placeholders(n_x, n_y):
    X = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, shape=[n_x,None],name="X")
    Y = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, shape=[n_y,None],name="Y")
    return X, Y

def initialize_parameters(layers_dims):   
    tf.set_random_seed(1)                   # so that your "random" numbers match ours
    parameters = {}
    L = len(layers_dims) # number of layers in the network
    for l in range(1,L):
        parameters['W' + str(l)] = tf.get_variable("W"+str(l), [layers_dims[l], layers_dims[l-1]], initializer = tf.contrib.layers.xavier_initializer(seed = 1))
        parameters['b' + str(l)] = tf.get_variable("b"+str(l), [layers_dims[l],1], initializer = tf.zeros_initializer())

    return parameters

def L2_regular(parameters,weight_decay=0.00004): 
    L = int(len(parameters)/2)
    if weight_decay > 0:
        for l in range(1,L):
            weight_loss= tf.nn.l2_loss(parameters["W" + str(l)]) * weight_decay         # L2, weight_loss
            tf.add_to_collection(tf.GraphKeys.REGULARIZATION_LOSSES, value = weight_loss)

def compute_cost(y_hat, Y):   
    # y_hat=tf.nn.softmax(y_hat)
    logits = tf.transpose(y_hat)    
    labels = tf.transpose(Y)

    cost = tf.reduce_mean(tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(logits = logits, labels = labels))
    weight_loss_op = tf.losses.get_regularization_losses()
    weight_loss_op = tf.add_n(weight_loss_op)
    total_loss_op = cost + weight_loss_op

    global merged_summary_op
    merged_summary_op = tf.summary.merge_all()
    return total_loss_op 

def BN(logits, name='BatchNorm',moving_decay=0.9,eps=1e-5,is_training=True):
    axis = list(range(len(logits.get_shape()) - 1))
    batch_mean, batch_var = tf.nn.moments(logits, axis)
    ema = tf.train.ExponentialMovingAverage(decay= moving_decay)
    def mean_var_with_update(batch_mean,batch_var):
        ema_apply_op = ema.apply([batch_mean,batch_var])
        with tf.control_dependencies([ema_apply_op]):
            return tf.identity(batch_mean), tf.identity(batch_var)
    mean, var = mean_var_with_update(batch_mean,batch_var)
    scale = tf.Variable(tf.ones([1]),name="scale")
    shift = tf.Variable(tf.zeros([1]),name="shift")
    return tf.nn.batch_normalization(logits, mean, var, shift, scale, eps)

def fully_connected(input_op, scope,  parameters, l,num_outputs, weight_decay=0.00004, is_activation=True, fineturn=True):
    with tf.compat.v1.variable_scope(scope):
        weights = parameters['W'+str(l)]
        biases = parameters['b'+str(l)]

        if is_activation:
            Z = tf.add(tf.matmul(weights,input_op),biases)
            Z = BN(Z)   #if comment this line, then it works fine
            return tf.nn.relu(Z)
            Z = tf.add(tf.matmul(weights,input_op),biases)
            Z = BN(Z)   # also for this line
            return Z

def model(X_train, Y_train, X_test, Y_test, layers_dims,  weight_decay=0.00004,learning_rate = 0.0001, num_epochs = 150, minibatch_size = 32, print_cost = True):  
    ops.reset_default_graph()                         # to be able to rerun the model without overwriting tf variables
    tf.set_random_seed(1)                             # to keep consistent results
    seed = 3                                          # to keep consistent results
    (n_x, m) = X_train.shape                          # (n_x: input size, m : number of examples in the train set)
    n_y = Y_train.shape[0]                            # n_y : output size
    costs = []                                        # To keep track of the cost
    # Create Placeholders of shape (n_x, n_y)
    X, Y = create_placeholders(n_x, n_y) 
    parameters = initialize_parameters(layers_dims)

    L = len(layers_dims) 
    net = X
    for l in range(1,L-1):
        net = fully_connected(net, 'fc'+str(l), parameters, l, layers_dims[l], weight_decay=weight_decay )
        print("layer:", l)
    y_hat = fully_connected(net, 'logits',parameters, L-1, layers_dims[L-1], is_activation=False, weight_decay=weight_decay ) 
    total_loss_op = compute_cost(y_hat, Y)
    print("total_loss_op created")
    # Backpropagation: Define the tensorflow optimizer. Use an AdamOptimizer.
    optimizer = tf.train.AdamOptimizer(learning_rate).minimize(total_loss_op)
    # Initialize all the variables
    init = tf.global_variables_initializer()   
    # init = tf.group(tf.global_variables_initializer(), tf.local_variables_initializer())

    # Step 2: Start the session to compute the tensorflow graph
    # Step 3: Initialize the session
    with tf.Session() as sess:
        sess.run(init)     # initialization 
        # sess.run(tf.global_variables_initializer())
        checkpoint = tf.train.get_checkpoint_state("MLP_Softmax")      
        saver = tf.train.Saver()  
        if checkpoint and checkpoint.model_checkpoint_path:
            saver.restore(sess, checkpoint.model_checkpoint_path)
            print ("Successfully loaded:", checkpoint.model_checkpoint_path)    
            print ("Could not find old network weights")
        global summary_writer
        summary_writer = tf.summary.FileWriter('Summaryfile',graph=sess.graph)         
        global merged_summary_op
        merged_summary_op = tf.summary.merge_all()        

        for epoch in range(num_epochs):

            epoch_cost = 0.                           # Defines a cost related to an epoch
            num_minibatches = int(m / minibatch_size) # number of minibatches of size minibatch_size in the train set
            seed = seed + 1
            minibatches = random_mini_batches(X_train, Y_train, minibatch_size, seed)

            for minibatch in minibatches:
                (minibatch_X, minibatch_Y) = minibatch
                _ , minibatch_cost = sess.run([optimizer, total_loss_op], feed_dict = {X:minibatch_X, Y:minibatch_Y}) 
                summary_str = sess.run(merged_summary_op,feed_dict={X:minibatch_X, Y:minibatch_Y})

                if epoch % 10 == 0:
                    saver.save(sess, 'MLP_Softmax/'+'Softmax-', global_step = epoch)
                epoch_cost += minibatch_cost / minibatch_size

            if print_cost == True and epoch % 100 == 0:
                print ("Cost after epoch %i: %f" % (epoch, epoch_cost))
            if print_cost == True and epoch % 5 == 0:

        # lets save the parameters in a variable
        parameters = sess.run(parameters)
        print ("Parameters have been trained!")

        # Calculate the correct predictions
        correct_prediction = tf.equal(tf.argmax(y_hat), tf.argmax(Y))

        # Calculate accuracy on the test set
        accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_prediction, "float"))

        print ("Train Accuracy:", accuracy.eval({X: X_train, Y: Y_train}))
        print ("Test Accuracy:", accuracy.eval({X: X_test, Y: Y_test}))
        return parameters

Number_Classes = 6
layers_dims = [X_train.shape[0], 25, 20,14, Number_Classes]
parameters = model(X_train, Y_train, X_test, Y_test,layers_dims)

The error is:

layer: 1
layer: 2
layer: 3
total_loss_op created
WARNING:tensorflow:From I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\ops\math_ops.py:3066: to_int32 (from tensorflow.python.ops.math_ops) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use tf.cast instead.
Traceback (most recent call last):

  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\client\session.py", line 1334, in _do_call
    return fn(*args)

  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\client\session.py", line 1319, in _run_fn
    options, feed_dict, fetch_list, target_list, run_metadata)

  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\client\session.py", line 1407, in _call_tf_sessionrun

InvalidArgumentError: You must feed a value for placeholder tensor 'X' with dtype float and shape [12288,?]
     [[{{node X}}]]

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):

  File "C:\Users\To find Berlin\Desktop\DL and RL\DL\C2W3\test3.py", line 205, in <module>
    parameters = model(X_train, Y_train, X_test, Y_test,layers_dims)

  File "C:\Users\To find Berlin\Desktop\DL and RL\DL\C2W3\test3.py", line 143, in model

  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\client\session.py", line 929, in run

  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\client\session.py", line 1152, in _run
    feed_dict_tensor, options, run_metadata)

  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\client\session.py", line 1328, in _do_run

  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\client\session.py", line 1348, in _do_call
    raise type(e)(node_def, op, message)

InvalidArgumentError: You must feed a value for placeholder tensor 'X' with dtype float and shape [12288,?]
     [[node X (defined at C:\Users\To find Berlin\Desktop\DL and RL\DL\C2W3\test3.py:27) ]]

Caused by op 'X', defined at:
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\runpy.py", line 193, in _run_module_as_main
    "__main__", mod_spec)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\runpy.py", line 85, in _run_code
    exec(code, run_globals)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\spyder_kernels\console\__main__.py", line 11, in <module>
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\spyder_kernels\console\start.py", line 320, in main
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\ipykernel\kernelapp.py", line 563, in start
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tornado\platform\asyncio.py", line 149, in start
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\asyncio\base_events.py", line 438, in run_forever
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\asyncio\base_events.py", line 1451, in _run_once
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\asyncio\events.py", line 145, in _run
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tornado\ioloop.py", line 690, in <lambda>
    lambda f: self._run_callback(functools.partial(callback, future))
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tornado\ioloop.py", line 743, in _run_callback
    ret = callback()
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tornado\gen.py", line 787, in inner
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tornado\gen.py", line 748, in run
    yielded = self.gen.send(value)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\ipykernel\kernelbase.py", line 361, in process_one
    yield gen.maybe_future(dispatch(*args))
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tornado\gen.py", line 209, in wrapper
    yielded = next(result)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\ipykernel\kernelbase.py", line 268, in dispatch_shell
    yield gen.maybe_future(handler(stream, idents, msg))
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tornado\gen.py", line 209, in wrapper
    yielded = next(result)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\ipykernel\kernelbase.py", line 541, in execute_request
    user_expressions, allow_stdin,
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tornado\gen.py", line 209, in wrapper
    yielded = next(result)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\ipykernel\ipkernel.py", line 300, in do_execute
    res = shell.run_cell(code, store_history=store_history, silent=silent)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\ipykernel\zmqshell.py", line 536, in run_cell
    return super(ZMQInteractiveShell, self).run_cell(*args, **kwargs)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\IPython\core\interactiveshell.py", line 2867, in run_cell
    raw_cell, store_history, silent, shell_futures)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\IPython\core\interactiveshell.py", line 2895, in _run_cell
    return runner(coro)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\IPython\core\async_helpers.py", line 68, in _pseudo_sync_runner
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\IPython\core\interactiveshell.py", line 3072, in run_cell_async
    interactivity=interactivity, compiler=compiler, result=result)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\IPython\core\interactiveshell.py", line 3263, in run_ast_nodes
    if (await self.run_code(code, result,  async_=asy)):
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\IPython\core\interactiveshell.py", line 3343, in run_code
    exec(code_obj, self.user_global_ns, self.user_ns)
  File "<ipython-input-3-8139b435d7a6>", line 1, in <module>
    runfile('C:/Users/To find Berlin/Desktop/DL and RL/DL/C2W3/test3.py', wdir='C:/Users/To find Berlin/Desktop/DL and RL/DL/C2W3')
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\spyder_kernels\customize\spydercustomize.py", line 532, in runfile
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\spyder_kernels\customize\spydercustomize.py", line 431, in exec_code
    exec(compiled, ns_globals, ns_locals)
  File "C:\Users\To find Berlin\Desktop\DL and RL\DL\C2W3\test3.py", line 205, in <module>
    parameters = model(X_train, Y_train, X_test, Y_test,layers_dims)
  File "C:\Users\To find Berlin\Desktop\DL and RL\DL\C2W3\test3.py", line 117, in model
    X, Y = create_placeholders(n_x, n_y)
  File "C:\Users\To find Berlin\Desktop\DL and RL\DL\C2W3\test3.py", line 27, in create_placeholders
    X = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, shape=[n_x,None],name="X")
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\ops\array_ops.py", line 2077, in placeholder
    return gen_array_ops.placeholder(dtype=dtype, shape=shape, name=name)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\ops\gen_array_ops.py", line 6834, in placeholder
    "Placeholder", dtype=dtype, shape=shape, name=name)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\framework\op_def_library.py", line 788, in _apply_op_helper
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\util\deprecation.py", line 507, in new_func
    return func(*args, **kwargs)
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\framework\ops.py", line 3300, in create_op
  File "I:\Anaconda\lib\site-packages\tensorflow\python\framework\ops.py", line 1801, in __init__
    self._traceback = tf_stack.extract_stack()

InvalidArgumentError (see above for traceback): You must feed a value for placeholder tensor 'X' with dtype float and shape [12288,?]
     [[node X (defined at C:\Users\To find Berlin\Desktop\DL and RL\DL\C2W3\test3.py:27) ]]

This error occurs at this step (line 143):

sess.run(init)  # initialization 

However, if I comment line 100 and line 104(in the def fully_connected() func ), thus cancel the batch normalization function, it can train & test the model.

I wish to know what's the problem within BN(),and why it occurs at the initialization step where usually no need for feed_dict?



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