I'm trying to find a textbook definition of Data augmentation. We all know what it is, but I'm having a hard time finding a reliable source which I can cite for my paper:

It doesn't help that there is a Markov chain Monte-Carlo algorithm with the same name cluttering up search results.

Any clues?


1 Answer 1


How about the definition from "The Art of Data Augmentation" by David A van Dyk & Xiao-Li Meng:

The term data augmentation refers to methods for constructing iterative optimization or sampling algorithms via the introduction of unobserved data or latent variables.


David A van Dyk & Xiao-Li Meng (2001) The Art of Data Augmentation, Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 10:1, 1-50, DOI: 10.1198/10618600152418584

  • $\begingroup$ Unfortunately, this seems to define the Monte Carlo algorithm I linked to in the question. $\endgroup$
    – Mossmyr
    Dec 9, 2020 at 6:52

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