I am new to machine learning and trying to apply it to my problem. I have a training dataset with 44000 rows of features with shape 6, 25. I want to build a sequential model. I was wondering if there is a way to use the features without flattening it. Currently, I flatten the features to 1d array and normalize for training (see the code below). I could not find a way to normalize 2d features.

dataset2d = dataset2d.reshape(dataset2d.shape[0],
normalizer = preprocessing.Normalization()

x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(dataset2d, flux_val,

# %% DNN regression multiple parameter
def build_and_compile_model(norm):
    inputs = Input(shape=(x_test.shape[1],))
    x = norm(inputs)
    x = layers.Dense(128, activation="selu")(x)
    x = layers.Dense(64, activation="relu")(x)
    x = layers.Dense(32, activation="relu")(x)
    x = layers.Dense(1, activation="linear")(x)
    model = Model(inputs, x)
    return model

dnn_model = build_and_compile_model(normalizer)
# interrupt training when model is no longer imporving
path_checkpoint = "model_checkpoint.h5"
modelckpt_callback = keras.callbacks.ModelCheckpoint(monitor="val_loss",
es_callback = keras.callbacks.EarlyStopping(monitor="val_loss",
                                            min_delta=0, patience=10)
history = dnn_model.fit(x_train, y_train, validation_split=0.2,
                        epochs=120, callbacks=[es_callback, modelckpt_callback])

I also tried to modify my model input layer to the following, such that I do not need to reshape my input

inputs = Input(shape=(x_test.shape[-1], x_test.shape[-2], ))

and modify the normalization to the following

normalizer = preprocessing.Normalization(axis=1)

But this does not seem to help. The normalization adapts to a 1d array of length 6, while I want it to adapt to a 2d array of shape 25, 6.

Sorry for the long question. You help will be much appreciated.


1 Answer 1


Dense layers inherently work with 1d-data and lose any positional "importance" of your input data (e.g. the location of a person in an image, how digits come together to form a number). Theoretically, you'll achieve the same training output if you decided to randomly shuffle the positions of your input features. If you want to stick with a Dense model as you've provided, I believe that normalizing on a 2d array would not benefit your training.

But it sounds like the position of each feature in the 6x25 matrix is important for your predictions. In that case, I would suggest switching from a Dense model to a convolutional model, which incorporates the position of each feature during training. Here's an example. In this case, here's a useful list of normalization techniques for 2D or 3D data inputs.

Please let me know if I can clarify anything. Good luck!


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