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I'm currently working on building an LSTM model to forecast time-series data using PyTorch. I used lag features to pass the previous n steps as inputs to train the network. I split the data into three sets, i.e., train-validation-test split, and used the first two to train the model. My validation function takes the data from the validation data set and calculates the predicted valued by passing it to the LSTM model using DataLoaders and TensorDataset classes. Initially, I've got pretty good results with R2 values in the region of 0.85-0.95.

However, I have an uneasy feeling about whether this validation function is also suitable for testing my model's performance. Because the function now takes the actual X values, i.e., time-lag features, from the DataLoader to predict y^ values, i.e., predicted target values, instead of using the predicted y^ values as features in the next prediction. This situation seems far from reality where the model has no clue of the real values of the previous time steps, especially if you forecast time-series data for longer time periods, say 3-6 months.

I'm currently a bit puzzled about how to tackle this issue and define a function to predict future values relying on the model's values rather than the actual values in the test set. I have the following function predict, which makes a one-step prediction, but I haven't really figured out how to predict the whole test dataset using DataLoader.

    def predict(self, x):
        # convert row to data
        x = x.to(device)
        # make prediction
        yhat = self.model(x)
        # retrieve numpy array
        yhat = yhat.to(device).detach().numpy()
        return yhat

You can find how I split and load my datasets, my constructor for the LSTM model, and the validation function below. If you need more information, please do not hesitate to reach out to me.

Splitting and Loading Datasets

def create_tensor_datasets(X_train_arr, X_val_arr, X_test_arr, y_train_arr, y_val_arr, y_test_arr):
    train_features = torch.Tensor(X_train_arr)
    train_targets = torch.Tensor(y_train_arr)
    val_features = torch.Tensor(X_val_arr)
    val_targets = torch.Tensor(y_val_arr)
    test_features = torch.Tensor(X_test_arr)
    test_targets = torch.Tensor(y_test_arr)

    train = TensorDataset(train_features, train_targets)
    val = TensorDataset(val_features, val_targets)
    test = TensorDataset(test_features, test_targets)

    return train, val, test

def load_tensor_datasets(train, val, test, batch_size=64, shuffle=False, drop_last=True):
    train_loader = DataLoader(train, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=shuffle, drop_last=drop_last)
    val_loader = DataLoader(val, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=shuffle, drop_last=drop_last)
    test_loader = DataLoader(test, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=shuffle, drop_last=drop_last)
    return train_loader, val_loader, test_loader

Class LSTM

class LSTMModel(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, input_dim, hidden_dim, layer_dim, output_dim, dropout_prob):
        super(LSTMModel, self).__init__()
        self.hidden_dim = hidden_dim
        self.layer_dim = layer_dim
        self.lstm = nn.LSTM(
            input_dim, hidden_dim, layer_dim, batch_first=True, dropout=dropout_prob
        )

        self.fc = nn.Linear(hidden_dim, output_dim)

    def forward(self, x, future=False):
        h0 = torch.zeros(self.layer_dim, x.size(0), self.hidden_dim).requires_grad_()
        c0 = torch.zeros(self.layer_dim, x.size(0), self.hidden_dim).requires_grad_()

        out, (hn, cn) = self.lstm(x, (h0.detach(), c0.detach()))
        out = out[:, -1, :]
        out = self.fc(out)

        return out

Validation (defined within a trainer class)

    def validation(self, val_loader, batch_size, n_features):

        with torch.no_grad():
            predictions = []
            values = []
            for x_val, y_val in val_loader:
                x_val = x_val.view([batch_size, -1, n_features]).to(device)
                y_val = y_val.to(device)
                self.model.eval()
                yhat = self.model(x_val)
                predictions.append(yhat.cpu().detach().numpy())
                values.append(y_val.cpu().detach().numpy())

        return predictions, values
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  • $\begingroup$ I found this post really useful for my code. I got also struggles by predicting. However I figured out how to make it with Keras library (look_back data approach). Could you please share with me the full code? $\endgroup$ Aug 4 at 17:03
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Usually, the input for LSTMs is a sequence that already happened regardless of train or test set.

Of course you could also try inputting past predictions, but I think this would probably lead to bad results.

If you want to predict further into the future you could increase the output dimension of your LSTM, however this will be more difficult for the model to learn.

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  • $\begingroup$ I see your point. The predicted values will probably get even further away from the actual values and the residuals will increase over time. However, for the use case that I'm dealing with this is rather acceptable. We're interested in making forecasts for 3-6 months, perhaps even a year. In reality, you don't really have such actual data points, say 3-6 months from now on, which is what I actually do when I use time-lag features as predictors in my model. As for increasing the output size, you're certainly right. That will increase the training time and make it harder for the model to learn. $\endgroup$ Feb 5 at 9:39
  • $\begingroup$ Using the predictions as input does not add any value since the information was already available to the model that made the prediction. I would just increase the output of the lstm or user larger time intervals, like by averaging and then fiddle witht the loss function, like weight the nearer future higher. $\endgroup$
    – bonfab
    Feb 5 at 9:49
  • $\begingroup$ Good point. The output from the previous cycle is available to the model. But it does not go as far as, say 50-time-steps into the past, which could help the model pick up some patterns. I think increasing the output size of the model is a bit tricky, especially with hourly/half-hourly data. Then what would the output size be, 24, 48, or 72? It seems rather odd, doesn't it? So, in the end, you say generating future values for the next, for example, 1-2k steps and evaluating the model by comparing these values with the actual values from the test set doesn't add up? $\endgroup$ Feb 5 at 10:29
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    $\begingroup$ If I would need long ranging future predictions, I would increase output sequence length of my lstm and make the time intervals bigger -> e.g. take average of every 6 hours and use that as input. I wouldn't use predictions as input. $\endgroup$
    – bonfab
    Feb 5 at 11:36
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I've finally found a way to forecast values based on predicted values from the earlier observations. As expected, the predictions were rather accurate in the short-term, slightly becoming worse in the long term. It is not so surprising that the future predictions digress over time, as they no longer depend on the actual values. Reflecting on my results and the discussions I had on the topic, here are my take-aways:

  • In real-life cases, the real values can be retrieved and fed into the model at each step of the prediction -be it weekly, daily, or hourly- so that the next step can be predicted with the actual values from the previous step. So, testing the performance based on the actual values from the test set may somewhat reflect the real performance of the model that is maintained regularly.

  • However, for predicting future values in the long term, forecasting, if you will, you need to make either multiple one-step predictions or multi-step predictions that span over the time period you wish to forecast.

  • Making multiple one-step predictions based on the values predicted the model yields plausible results in the short term. As the forecasting period increases, the predictions become less accurate and therefore less fit for the purpose of forecasting.

  • To make multiple one-step predictions and update the input after each prediction, we have to work our way through the dataset one by one, as if we are going through a for-loop over the test set. Not surprisingly, this makes us lose all the computational advantages that matrix operations and mini-batch training provide us.

  • An alternative could be predicting sequences of values, instead of predicting the next value only, say using RNNs with multi-dimensional output with many-to-many or seq-to-seq structure. They are likely to be more difficult to train and less flexible to make predictions for different time periods. An encoder-decoder structure may prove useful for solving this, though I have not implemented it by myself.

You can find the code for my function that forecasts the next n_steps based on the last row of the dataset X (time-lag features) and y (target value). To iterate over each row in my dataset, I would set batch_size to 1 and n_features to the number of lagged observations.

    def forecast(self, X, y, batch_size=1, n_features=1, n_steps=100):
        predictions = []
        X = torch.roll(X, shifts=1, dims=2)
        X[..., -1, 0] = y.item(0)
        with torch.no_grad():
            self.model.eval()
            for _ in range(n_steps):
                X = X.view([batch_size, -1, n_features]).to(device)
                yhat = self.model(X)
                yhat = yhat.to(device).detach().numpy()
                X = torch.roll(X, shifts=1, dims=2)
                X[..., -1, 0] = yhat.item(0)
                predictions.append(yhat)

        return predictions

The following line shifts values in the second dimension of the tensor by one so that a tensor [[[x1, x2, x3, ... , xn ]]] becomes [[[xn, x1, x2, ... , x(n-1)]]].

X = torch.roll(X, shifts=1, dims=2)

And, the line below selects the first element from the last dimension of the 3d tensor and sets that item to the predicted value stored in the NumPy ndarray (yhat), [[xn+1]]. Then, the new input tensor becomes [[[x(n+1), x1, x2, ... , x(n-1)]]]

X[..., -1, 0] = yhat.item(0)

I tried to summarize some of the things I would have liked to know back when I started. I hope you'll find it useful. Feel free to comment or reach out to me if you agree or disagree with any of the remarks I made above.

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