What is the technical term for a report or dataset that compares data of an interval of time with that of the same interval in a previous week, month, or year?
A repeated cross-sectional study. Cross-sectional refers to data collected at one specific point in time or over a short period. Repeated since you compare at least two time frames. If there are several time frames, one could talk about time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data. Repeated cross-sectional studies may become pseudolongitudinal, or longitudinal if carried over a longer lapse of time.