I'm learning statistical learning with the well known ISLR (Introduction to Statistical Learning with Applications in R) and doing the exercises, right now in the linear chapter regression. Despite being linear regression, non linear transformations are also mentioned because of the high bias issues.
It's quite straightforward to understand the meaning of a linear regression model with multiple predictors, e.g.:
Y = β0 + β1X1 + β2X2 + β3X3
X1 increases by one unit, predicted response
Y will increase by
β1 units (assuming
X2 remains constant), same for the rest of predictors.
Also for regression with interaction terms:
Y = β0 + β1X1 + β2X2 + β3X1 X2
Which in this case indicates there's a synergy between
X2 predictors, removing the additive assumption.
I'm also getting familiar with F-statistic, t-value or p-value for assessing the statistical significance of the predictors and decide whether or not there's an actual relationship with the predicted variable.
In the applied exercises section for this chapter, one of the exercises used with a dataset with several values, contains the following question:
Try a few different transformations of the variables, such as log(X), sqrt(X), X^2. Comment on your findings.
How should one try nonlinear transformation of variables following an intuition? It's easy to get a sense of this for simple regression with a single predictor (just by plotting the dataset), but what's the technique here without just randomly try stuff, considering that there are several predictors to try them all?
Moreover, given the following hypothetical model:
Y = β0 + β1X1 + β2X2 + β3X3 + β4X1^2 + β5log(X2)
That is, a predictor having both a linear and non linear relationship with the response? What can be a real-world example to understand this? As said, this would be very easy with a single predictor, but I don't find an intuition with multivariate regression.