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I am very new to the data science domain and directly jumped to TensorFlow models. I've worked on examples provided on the website before. My first time doing any project using it.

I am building a Cricket Score Predictor using Keras, Tensorflow. I have a dataset of details of players in a csv containing columns - "striker", "non_striker", "bowler", "run_per_ball", "run_per_ball_avg", "ball_count". "ball_count" and "run_per_ball" are labels of the model and rest are features. I have a total of 51555rows x 6columns, after 80:20 split, train_dataset is 41244rows x 6columns.

Here's my code, there lots of extra stuff though, but will get the idea.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from sklearn.utils import shuffle
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
import seaborn as sns
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow import keras
from tensorflow.keras.models import Sequential
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Activation, Dense, Dropout, BatchNormalization, Conv2D
from tensorflow.keras.optimizers import Adam
from tensorflow.keras.optimizers import SGD
from tensorflow.keras.metrics import categorical_crossentropy
from tensorflow.keras.metrics import KLDivergence
from tensorflow.keras.layers.experimental import preprocessing

df = pd.read_csv('dataset/output_total_run_ball_avg2.csv')
df = df.loc[:,["striker", "bowler", "non_striker", "run_per_ball", "run_per_ball_avg", "ball_count"]]
df = df.sort_values(by=['run_per_ball_avg'])

wordList = []
wordMap = {}
def getNumber(word):
  if word in wordMap:
    return wordMap[word];

  wordIndex = len(wordList)
  wordList.append(word)
  wordMap[word] = wordIndex
  return wordIndex


for name in df["striker"].drop_duplicates():
    df.loc[df['striker'] == name, ['striker']] = getNumber(name)
for name in df["bowler"].drop_duplicates():
    df.loc[df['bowler'] == name, ['bowler']] = getNumber(name)
for name in df["non_striker"].drop_duplicates():
    df.loc[df['non_striker'] == name, ['non_striker']] = getNumber(name)

df['striker'] = df.striker.astype(int)
df['bowler'] = df.bowler.astype(int)
df['non_striker'] = df.non_striker.astype(int)
df.dtypes

sns.pairplot(df[["striker", "bowler", "non_striker", "run_per_ball", "run_per_ball_avg", "ball_count"]], diag_kind='kde')

train_dataset = df.sample(frac=0.8, random_state=0)
test_dataset = df.drop(train_dataset.index)

train_features = train_dataset.loc[:,["striker", "bowler", "non_striker", "run_per_ball_avg"]]
test_features = test_dataset.loc[:,["striker", "bowler", "non_striker", "run_per_ball_avg"]]
train_labels = train_dataset.loc[:,["ball_count", "run_per_ball"]]
test_labels = test_dataset.loc[:,["ball_count", "run_per_ball"]]

normalizer = preprocessing.Normalization()
normalizer.adapt(np.array(train_features))

def build_and_compile_model(norm):
  model = keras.Sequential([
      norm,
      Dense(12, activation='relu'),
      keras.layers.BatchNormalization(axis=-1, momentum=0.99, epsilon=0.001, center=True, scale=True, beta_initializer='zeros', gamma_initializer='ones', moving_mean_initializer='zeros', moving_variance_initializer='ones'),
      Dense(64, activation='selu'),
      keras.layers.BatchNormalization(axis=-1, momentum=0.99, epsilon=0.001, center=True, scale=True, beta_initializer='zeros', gamma_initializer='ones', moving_mean_initializer='zeros', moving_variance_initializer='ones'),
      Dense(64, activation='elu'),
      keras.layers.BatchNormalization(axis=-1, momentum=0.99, epsilon=0.001, center=True, scale=True, beta_initializer='zeros', gamma_initializer='ones', moving_mean_initializer='zeros', moving_variance_initializer='ones'),
      Dense(64, activation='selu'),
      keras.layers.BatchNormalization(axis=-1, momentum=0.99, epsilon=0.001, center=True, scale=True, beta_initializer='zeros', gamma_initializer='ones', moving_mean_initializer='zeros', moving_variance_initializer='ones'),
      Dense(64, activation='elu'),
      Dense(1)
  ])

  model.compile(loss='mean_squared_error',
                optimizer=SGD(lr=0.00001), metrics=['accuracy'])
  return model

dnn_model = build_and_compile_model(normalizer)
dnn_model.summary()

history = dnn_model.fit(
    train_features, train_labels,
    validation_split=0.2,
    verbose=2, epochs=3000)

When I train the model, performance is poor and gets saturated within few epochs. And below is a glimpse, the accuracy remains same for next 1000 epochs atleast.

Epoch 1/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 15.5479 - accuracy: 0.0984 - val_loss: 13.3904 - val_accuracy: 0.1297
Epoch 2/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 12.3266 - accuracy: 0.1654 - val_loss: 11.0267 - val_accuracy: 0.2033
Epoch 3/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 10.3872 - accuracy: 0.2040 - val_loss: 9.4669 - val_accuracy: 0.2104
Epoch 4/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 9.1706 - accuracy: 0.2088 - val_loss: 8.5238 - val_accuracy: 0.2117
Epoch 5/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 8.4002 - accuracy: 0.2102 - val_loss: 7.9032 - val_accuracy: 0.2124
Epoch 6/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 7.9329 - accuracy: 0.2108 - val_loss: 7.5526 - val_accuracy: 0.2127
Epoch 7/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 7.6496 - accuracy: 0.2110 - val_loss: 7.3502 - val_accuracy: 0.2128
Epoch 8/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 7.4813 - accuracy: 0.2110 - val_loss: 7.2292 - val_accuracy: 0.2132
Epoch 9/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 7.3916 - accuracy: 0.2110 - val_loss: 7.1537 - val_accuracy: 0.2135
Epoch 10/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 7.3251 - accuracy: 0.2111 - val_loss: 7.1124 - val_accuracy: 0.2136
Epoch 11/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 7.3063 - accuracy: 0.2111 - val_loss: 7.0945 - val_accuracy: 0.2137
Epoch 12/3000
1032/1032 - 1s - loss: 7.2791 - accuracy: 0.2111 - val_loss: 7.0772 - val_accuracy: 0.2139

seaborn data plot Here my data graph from seaborn.

Things I've already tried after reading in various places and sources:

  • Tried optimizers : Adam, SGD with different learning rate from 0.001 to 0.000001.
  • Tried loss functions : max_absolute_error, max_squared_error, mse, categorical_crossentropy
  • Normalised Inputs
  • Mapped players name to individual numbers
  • Added/Removed Sequential layers, 2 - 4 hidden layers
  • Used Batch normalization

I've tried a lot and did a lot of tweaking but still no hope so far. I tried every possible method suggested online. Maybe I'm doing something silly. Any help would mean a lot.

Above are my findings so far, if any other details needed, I'll try to post here. Thanks to everyone who is willing to help.

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  • $\begingroup$ You code seems fine. Your metrics is incorrect. It should be 'mean absolute percentage error' . Seeing the loss, we can say that score prediction is decent. $\endgroup$ – 10xAI Apr 20 at 11:31
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Everything seems correct to my non-expert eyes in your code, exept lr in the code you shared (0.00001) seems low for a SGD, but as you mentionned, you tried different rates, so this probably is not the issue there.

I'm not familiar with elu or selu activation functions and usually use relu in all my layers, yet i can't say if that is the problem.

May you share a link to the dataset you used so we can try running the code and change some parameters ?

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A couple of things that jump out immediately as being a little odd:

  • You seem to have two labels "ball_count" and "run_per_ball" but only 1 output of the network.
  • You are using an MSE loss, which is typically used for regression problems. This seems to be a sensible choice for outputs like ball_count or run_per_ball. However, accuracy, is a metric that is used to measure the accuracy of classification problems (as correct classifications divided by total samples)
  • It looks as if you are not one hot encoding you're categorical features. If you do not do this it is very difficult for the network to learn anything appropriate from them.

What I would recommend you do to begin with is train on just one of the labels, either ball_count or run_per_ball, but not both, and replace your metric with something more appropriate for a regression problem, for example, mean absolute error. When you do this, I would also suggest removing some of the bells and whistles such as the batch normalization and the fancy activations. If it were me, I would do something like a simple two layer network, 64 units each, ReLU or Tanh activations, with a linear activation on the output.

The other thing to keep in mind is that, especially for things like sports data, there is going to be a lot of stochasticity in the data which can not be modelled with only simple features. If you can find other examples of models using similar data that might give you a reasonable expectation of what to aim for in your results.

This is a challenging problem to jump head first into if you are new to data science. You may want to work through some more standard problems and/or simpler models. Whilst Neural Networks are all the rage nowadays (and deservingly so), you may benefit from handling some more straight-forward models to begin with. A lot of the important fundamentals that go into simpler linear models are highly applicable to neural networks too. Neural Networks mostly shine above other models when there is a capacity to learn richer intermediate features from the inputs then the inputs can offer alone which may not be the case for this sort of data.

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