Questions tagged [attention-mechanism]

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How do transformers differ from feature selection and regular machine learning?

This is perhaps a simplistic way of thinking, but to me transformers (attention based neural networks) focus on a subset of the input, learning what is important for the problem/prediction as the ...
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Are Soft and Bahdanau attentions different?

I have been working on a Image Captioning model. And read many articles accomplishing it. Some used both attentions interchangably while some did not. And the formulaes differed too. So, I would like ...
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Multi head self attention output size for batches with different sequence length

I have a question regarding the self attention layer of transformers. When dealing with sequences of varying lengths in a mini-batch, we pad sequences so that all sequences in the batch have the same ...
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Is there an example of the implementation of the Keras Attention Layer? The example code in the website is incomplete

I have been struggling for a few weeks trying to implement an Attention layer to a bidirectional LSTM model that I've built. Keras has three different kinds of Attention layer, and I'd like to see at ...
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How to use strong labels in image classification?

I have a dataset where I have localized pixel-level annotations of a dataset of cancer vs non-cancer. Which deep learning methods can I use to optimize the model to focus on the localized regions of ...
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How to add an Attention Layer on Keras?

0 I am trying to replicate a BiLSTM model that I read on an article, but I am having a lot of trouble implementing an Attention Layer. I am not particularly concerned that it has to be the exact same ...
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Difference Between Attention and Fully Connected Layers in Deep Learning

There have been several papers in the last few years on the so-called "Attention" mechanism in deep learning (e.g. 1 2). The concept seems to be that we want the neural network to focus on ...
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Does this kind of attention exist?

As someone who is new to deep learning, I am only familiar with self-attention. I'm designing a model. Imagine there are n data, which the $i_{th}$ data can be represented as a vector $x_i$. And the ...
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Changing attention mechanism for average pool

I am using the TFNET model from this github for a ML project. I am trying to compare the difference between using the attention mechanism and just using plain max/average pooling. As this is not my ...
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Transformers - Why Self Attention calculate dot product of q and k from of same word?

As far as I understand and looked into Attention Is All You Need and Transformer model for language understanding, the Self Attention at Scaled Dot-Product Attention is calculating $query$ and $key$ ...
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Visualize attention area

I wonder how people draw a network's attention area on a single input. Such as: Any hint is much appreciated
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How to add the Luong Attention Mechanism into CNN?

As I write my CNN model for an image binary classification below, I'm trying to add an attention layer to this model. I read from tf.keras.layers.Attention: https://...
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What is a in intuitive explanation of attention and self attention mechanisms?

...that goes into sufficient technical details. I could not find any great resource out there. I think an infographics in this fashion: could come a long way, if that makes sense here. Credit to ...
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Could Attention_mask in T5 be a float in [0,1]?

I was inspecting T5 model from hf https://huggingface.co/docs/transformers/model_doc/t5 . attention_mask is presented as ...
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Custom Simulator for Deep Reinforcement Learning

I am trying to develop a control method for a specific process in industry. I have a time-series of data for the process and want to develop a prediction model base on attention mechanism to estimate ...
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How to Visualize attention weights in a Attention based Encoder-Decoder network in Time series forecasting

Below is one example Attention-based Encoder-decoder network for multivariate time series forecasting task. I want to visualize the attention weights. ...
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Do the multiple heads in Multi head attention actually lead to more parameters or different outputs?

I am trying to understand Transformers. While I understand the concept of the encoder-decoder structure and the idea behind self-attention what I am stuck at is the "multi head part" of the &...
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Document understanding - sentence length prediction

the subject is taken almost verbatim from this paper https://arxiv.org/pdf/2108.02923.pdf. One of the tasks , is to be able to tell, in a document, if 2 words are part of the same phrase. For e.g. if ...
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How to implement Early stopping in Neural Machine Translation with Attention or Transformers?

I am trying to implement early stopping to my model where I am performing Machine Translation using Seq2Seq with attention. I am mostly used to writing my own models in steps, something like this: <...
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Input 0 is incompatible with layer repeat_vector_40: expected ndim=2, found ndim=1

I am developing an LSTM autoencoder model for anomaly detection. I have my keras model setup as below: ...
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For an LSTM-based seq2seq model, is reversing the input still necessary or advised when using attention?

The original seq2seq paper reversed the input sequence and cited multiple reasons for doing so. See: Why does LSTM performs better when the source target is reversed? (Seq2seq) But when using ...
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Positional encoding without input embedding

Does it make sense to use a positional encoding in attention when the input tokens do not go through an embedding layer? In NLP models, the embedding maps a word to real numbers. ...
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How to extract attention weight from MultiHeadAttention layer in Keras?

How to extract attention weights from MultiHeadAttention layer in Keras? With the attention weights, I hope to plot attention heatmaps.
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How to use the keras.layers.AdditiveAttention correctly?

My understanding on the topic is superficial at best, so do bear with me. I have a couple questions (specifically on how to use keras.layers.AdditiveAttention) which I hope is suitable to be asked ...
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keras_self_attention vs attention layer

can i get a help pleas what is the diffreent btween if i bulid attention class like this to my Bi LSTM MODEL and keras_self_attention ? from tensorflow.keras.layers import Layer from tensorflow.keras ...
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Why does Bahdanau Attention Have to be Causal?

Using the Bahdanau attention layer on Tensorflow for time series prediction, although conceptually it is similar to NLP applications. This is how the minimal example code for a single layer looks like....
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Self Attention vs LSTM with Attention for NMT

I am trying to compare the A: Transformer-based architecture for Neural Machine Translation (NMT) from the Attention is All You Need paper, with B: an architecture based on Bi-directional LSTM's in ...
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Pytorch different result when using `torch.matmul` and `for-loop` to pass input through linear layers

I have been at this for about two days now. I am working on a model that takes on an input x and passes it through several linear layers, and concatenates the ...
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How to reference length of input sequence inside Keras model?

Basically I am trying to implement a "Transformer-like" architecture for physiological time-series classification. One of the specific design criteria is for the model to be able to process ...
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Multioutput prediction using LSTM encoder decoder with Attention

(I am working on Jupter notebook with python version 3.6.12, running Tensorflow 2.4.0 version.) I have a dataset that consists of 5 input features and 3 output features (that requires to be predicted)....
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Can a reformer model really handle long-range dependency?

I read this article about new attention model called Reformer. Here is the main strength of this model: The Reformer pushes the limit of longe sequence modeling by its ability to process up to half a ...
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nn.embedding alternative for float numbers

I have found this pytorch code of transformers suitable for machine translation: ...
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Where do Q vectors come from in Attention-based Sequence-to-Sequence Transformers?

I'm taking a course on Attention-based NLP but I'm not understanding the calculation and application of Attention, based on the use of Q, K, and V vectors. My understanding is that the K and V ...
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How is attention different from linear MLPs?

Each output for both the attention layer (as in transformers) and MLPs or feedforward layer(linear-activation) are weighted sums of previous layer. So how they are different?
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What reccent alternatives to LSTM are there for regression problems?

I have been working for a while on a regression problem - predicting the air pollution in a city based on meteorological features (humidity, temperature, wind velocity a.o.). I have trained an LSTM ...
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time series anomaly detection

I want to ask for time series anomaly detection we can apply tnn on multiple features or not? I used transformer for sentiment analysis where I have to provide a sentence and it predicts its output as ...
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Self-Attention Summation and Loss of Information

In self-attention, the attention for a word is calculated as: $$ A(q, K, V) = \sum_{i} \frac{exp(q.k^{<i>})}{\sum_{j} exp(q.k^{<j>})}v^{<i>} $$ My question is why we sum over the ...
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Which layer actually contains attention and how to map with input for classification scenario

I am writing a binary classification case and want to use Attention. The code is here - Code and model graph is shown below with attention area highlighted . I want to visualize which which word is ...
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Does Keras MultiHeadAttention with 1 head equals normal self attention?

Keras multihead attention if used as single head num_heads=1, then how is it different than Keras Attention ? Also, Is multihead attention by default self-...
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How to use flatten with SeqSelfAttention

I want to use SeqSelfAttention , but in final layer the dimension need to be reduced. However, adding Flatten gives following error : ...
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Why does Keras only have 3 types of attention layers?

The Keras library list only has 3 types of attentions - keras attention layers, which are : MultiHeadAttention layer Attention layer AdditiveAttention layer However, in theory there are multiple ...
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Accuracy goes low with attention layer

Below is code 1 which is not using Attention layer : ...
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why multiple attention heads learn differently

In transformer architecture multi head attention blocks are used. While visualizing their output it can be seen that every layer has learnt different relations of words. e.g., layer 5 has learnt that &...
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Attention weights - change during learning and prediction

Assume a simple LSTM Followed by Attention layer or a full transformer architecture. The attention weights are learnt during training, which get multiplied with keys, queries and values. Please ...
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Struggling to understand/implement Transformer Decoder

I'm struggling to understand the decoder in a Transformer model, specifically with regards to some aspects of its architecture as well as how it actually handles the data during training. What I have ...
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How to encode a sentence using an attention mechanism?

Recently, I read about one of the state-of-the-art method called Attention models. This method use a Encoder-Decoder model. It can find a better encoding for each word in a sentence. But how can I ...
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An algorithm to extract the purpose of a document

I want to build an algorithm to extract the purpose of the document (scientific papers for example) by extracting the sentences that state the purpose. I don't have many annotated data so I might use ...
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Why do we need dot product as part of the Transformer's training process?

I do understand that dot product conveys the meaning of similarity in a vector space. At the same time it looks like during the training process we are learning the weights( or how much attention) ...
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In Transformer's multi-headed attention, how attending "different representation subspaces at different positions" is achieved?

Question partially inspired by this post about the need of multi-head attention mechanism. For me though it is still not clear how we will be able to initialise those attention heads in a diverse way(...
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What exactly is the linear layer in the transformer model?

Please see this image: There are linear layers to modify the Query, key and value matrices and one linear layer after the multi head attention as they mention also from here: Are these linear layers ...
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