# Questions tagged [distribution]

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### How to predict whether or not a customer will renew

I have a dataset of customer contracts that specify a start date and if applicable an end date. Each month a customer is up for renewal. Below is an example of how the data is organized in excel: <...
588 views

### KL divergence in VAE

If I understand correctly KL-divergence is relative entropy of two distributions. To calculate KL divergence of two distributions, you would need two vectors of random variables. What I do not ...
74 views

### How to check the similarity between two transition matrixes

I have two transition matrixes in which the probabilities for the transition between each from state to each to states are ...
139 views

### Standard Deviation for Z-scores

I have a set of data that I'm trying to generate a z-score with. I know I need standard deviation as part of my calculations. I am using the formula of: $\sigma = \sqrt{p * n * (1-p)}$ My data is ...
123 views

### Generating a set of different scenarios based on some initial observations

I have a in my hands 3 different time series which model 3 different scenarios (base, downside, upside). Every of this time-series depends on a set of 11 different attributes, which take values for ...
150 views

### Maximum likelihood estimation vs calculating distribution parameters "manually"

I'm sorry for asking probably elementary question, but I cannot understand how estimating probability distribution parameters using maximum likelihood estimation method differs from calculating these ...
7k views

### What Does the Normalization Factor Mean in the AdaBoost Algorithm?

I am studying the AdaBoost algorithm. The update rule for a weak hypothesis is: $Dt+1(i) = Dt(i)exp(−αtyiht(xi))/zt$ where $zt$ is a normalization factor chosen so that $Dt+1$ is a distribution. ...
29 views

### Calculate whether datapoints are part of a larger distribution

I have some normally distributed variables (~800) and some variables that are in some way special (~30). I need to find out whether the special ones can be considered normal members of the ...
106 views

### How often do we see normally distributed data

I am having difficulty in exactly understanding several statistical tests, such as the t-test and ANOVA test. These tests require that the data we use be normally distributed. However, whilst ...
24 views

### How to get maintenance interval from maintenance outcomes?

I have a machine, which needs maintenance. Every time the technician visits the machine, there are four possible outcomes: a) The machine is broken, b) The machine is still running, but it's high ...
108 views

### Binomial family in logistic regression

I was asked in an interview why do we use the binomial distribution in logistic regression and how is it related to the class that we are predicting? Could anyone explain, without any mathematical ...
76 views

### On Noise Contrastive Estimation, replace noise distribution with difficult examples

In noise contrastive estimation, we learn a binary classifier to classify noise from the true distribution. The problem I'm trying to solve has discrete input variables yet it's intractable to sum ...
176 views

### Wasserstein distance between Gaussian and the empirical distribution

Wasserstein distance between two gaussians has a closed form solution. Does the same hold for the distance between a Gaussian with a fixed variance(say 1) and the empirical data distribution? ...
97 views

### Supervised learning for variable length feature-less data

I have data in following form: ...
168 views

### Does classification of a balanced data-set lead to any problem?

So I came across a bioinformatics paper, where I found a line which says: One potential problem with using a training set with equal numbers of positive and negative examples in cross-validation ...
383 views

### can I say that my variable is "approximately" normally distributed?

I am studying a variable on 50000 observations, I have applied a cox box transformation to make it normal, but even with transformation the kolmogorov smirnof and the anderson darling test tells that ...
19 views

### Feature has a pattern in relation to class but does not enhance classifier to predict class

I have a feature x that when I plot it again my class variable y it shows some sort of pattern, i.e. it is obvious that x has a relation with y, but when I add the x to my logistic model it reduce the ...
49 views

### Algorithms that would benefit from variable transformations?

1- Which algorithms would benefit from data that has been transformed, so that distributions of continuous variables resemble that of a normal distribution ? 2- What would be the benefits of ...
22 views

### Number of events estimation

I have three different histograms (Impact parameter distributions) corresponding to three groups of the same particle with different properties. However, the three distribution have more or less the ...
915 views

### Boxplots or violinplots?

This is quite a general question, perhaps somewhat opinion-based. In most papers people use boxplots to visualize a certain distribution, yet violinplots are able to give more information. ...
54 views

### Constructing graph of crypto financial instruments 2016-2017

Set of financial instruments represent the set of vertices of the graph. For any pair of vertices $i$ and $j$, an edge connecting them is added to the graph if the corresponding correlation ...
193 views

### Stratified Sampling Variable Choice

I am trying to do stratified sampling in R to sample from my data and one of the parameters is group, which takes variable names to sample from keeping same initial distribution of the data set. Is ...
4k views

### Working with Data which is not Normal/Gaussian

What happens if my data/feature is not normal? Can I still use machine learning algorithms to utilize such data for predictions? I noticed in many data sciences courses, there is always a strong ...
167 views

### Detecting Different Distributions in data [closed]

Supposing I have a dataset that I assume that have instances generated by two different distributions, is it possible to separate these instances based on the underlying generating distribution? ...
326 views

### Machine learning learn to work well on future data distribution?

This is based on my limited machine learning scope and experience, so correct me if I'm wrong. Many of the currently used machine learning models (SVMs, boosted trees, DNNs) work under the assumption ...
1k views

### Which outlier detection can detect these outliers?

I have a vector and want to detect outliers in it. The following figure shows the distribution of the vector. Red points are outliers. Blue points are normal points. Yellow points are also normal. ...
45 views

### Estimate the normal distribution of the mean of a normal distribution given a set of samples?

Let's say there is a distribution, call it D, for which I don't know details (i.e. mean and variance) but can assume that it's a normal distribution. I now have N samples from D. I cannot take more ...
406 views

### Maximum likelihood Estimation of three-parameter log-logistic distribution in R

I am trying to estimate parameters from a three-parameter Log-logistic distribution in R. I have a code as follows: ...
2k views

### Does SQL Server support the Poisson distribution?

I am trying to do some work that is primarily based in SQL Server. I cannot seem to find a native function to SQL that supports the Poisson distribution. Has anyone had success with applying Poisson ...
244 views

### Gamma random variable , need to find the approximate 90th percentile of X? [closed]

A colleague defines a random variable $X = \frac{Z}{Y^2}$, where $Z$ is a known normal random variable, $Y$ is a known gamma random variable, and $Z$ and $Y$ are independent of each other. You are ...
753 views

### Generalization error for simple linear regression

Lets say we have a training data and we have estimated a fit for a model of square ft of living area vs price of houses. Suppose we know the probability distribution of sq ft and for a fixed sq ft we ...
756 views

### Methods / Algorithms for rank scales based on cumulative scoring

Say you have an organization that requires employees to participate in a Q&A site similar to StackOverflow - questions and answers are voted upon, selected answers get extra points, certain ...
9k views

### Plotting different values in pandas histogram with different colors

I am working on a dataset. The dataset consists of 16 different features each feature having values belonging to the set (0, 1, 2). In order to check the distribution of values in each column, I used <...
1k views

### How to check if a data is in gaussian distribution in R or excel?

I know about the fitdist() function from the fitdistrplus package in R, however, I am not able to use it to predict a gaussian ...
13k views

### Transform a skewed distribution into a Gaussian distribution

I have a skewed distribution that looks like this: How can I transform it to a Gaussian distribution? The values represent ranks, so modifying the values does not cause information loss as long as ...
Suppose I have a sample {$z_i$}$_{i\in[0,N]}$ = {($x_i,y_i$)}$_{i\in[0,N]}$ which commes from a probability distribution $p_z(z)$. How can I use it to estimate the mutual information between X and Y ? ...