# Questions tagged [expectation-maximization]

An optimization algorithm often used for maximum-likelihood estimation in the presence of missing data.

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### Why posterior in EM algorithm tractable but in VAE not?

So I've read through this post, including the Bayesian Mixture of Gaussians supplied in the link in the last comment by oW_ there, to really see why the posterior is intractable. I just don't see yet ...
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### GMM expectation maximization ValueError: could not broadcast input array from shape (2700,1) into shape (2700,)

Problem Statement The goal is to have the Gaussian Mixture Model has_prediction() function to execute after the Gaussian Mixture Model fix() function that will invoke methods on this custom ...
411 views

### Math of Gaussian Mixture Models & EM Algorithm

I'm having a hard time understanding the math behind GMMs. A GMM is a weighted sum over K different Gaussian components with parameters $\mu_k, \sigma_k, \pi_k$ From my understanding, the general ...
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### Searching optimum ranges for maximizing a variable

I am currently working on a project where I have been asked to analyze a dataframe with various time series. ...
1 vote
66 views

### How to derive Evidence Lower Bound in the paper "Zero-Shot Text-to-Image Generation"?

Can someone share the derivation of Evidence Lower Bound in this paper ? Zero-Shot Text-to-Image Generation The overall procedure can be viewed as maximizing the evidence lower bound (ELB) (Kingma &...
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### Which latent variable model is better to find hidden variable?

Currently, I am exploring the concept of latent variable for regression type datasets. I have gone through literature of few of ...
1 vote
31 views

### Active learning with mixture model cluster assignments - am I injecting bias here?

Suppose I have a dataset of people's phone numbers and heights, and I'm interested in learning the parameters $p_{girl}$, $p_{boy}=1-p_{girl}$, $\mu_{boy}$, $\mu_{girl}$, and overall $\sigma$ ...
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1 vote
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### How to find the feature regions where each label is the most expected when using decision trees?

Given a decision tree for classification for example this one: What is the way to find the feature domain (petal and sepal width and length) where a sample would most likely occur in the feature ...
• 113
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### Why Gaussian mixture model uses Expectation maximization instead of Gradient descent?

Why Gaussian mixture model uses Expectation maximization instead of Gradient descent? What other models uses Expectation maximization to find best optimal parameters instead of using gradient descent?
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1 vote
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### E-step for EM algorithm for document clustering

I have a code for the E-step in the EM algorithm for Document Clustering in the version of hard-EM algorithm. I'm trying to implement the E-step for soft-EM algorithm. Here is my code for Hard-EM: <...
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1 vote
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### N-Gram Linear Smoothing

In slide 61 of the NLP text, to smooth out the n-gram probabilities, we need to find the lambdas the miximazies a probability to held-out set given in terms of M(λ1, λ2, ...λ_k). What does this ...
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1 vote
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### Gaussian Mixture Models Clustering

When using the EM algorithm in Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM), in the E-step, we take each x set in the training dataset to calculate and update the "weight" and parameters of each Gaussian ...
• 131
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### Best python library for training using Hidden Marov model with Gaussian Mixture

I would like to train my data using HMM- GMM (Baum Welch approach with gaussian Mixture) to find the best parameters suited for my data. Note : My data is ...
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### Does feature normalization improve performance of Hidden Markov Models?

For training a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) on a multivariate, continuous time series, is it preferable to scale the data somehow? Some pre-processing steps may be: Normalize to 0-mean and unit-variance ...
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### How would you describe cluster 2 from this output of a run of the EM program?

My description: Cluster 2 consists of 9511 instances, the age is around 42 (ranges between 29.7207 and 54.5257). Considering Age, Cluster 2 is very well separated from Cluster 1, with a distance of ...
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### Hidden Markov Models: Linking states to labels after EM training

The tl;dr version first: I have the following problem: I implemented Baum Welch for ergodic HMMs. I do it like this: I pass the model two number C1 and ...
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### How to compare the performance of different number of mixing components for EM algorithm?

I am reading about the EM (Expectation-Maximization) algorithm in a machine learning book. At the end remark of the chapter, the authors mentioned that we cannot decide the "optimality" of the number ...