Questions tagged [interpretation]

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How to interpret a linear regression effects graph?

could someone tell me how to interpret the following graph? It corresponds to a graph in which the effects of the variables in a linear regression are observed, but its interpretation is not clear to ...
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Interpretation of agnostic models

I am trying to interpret a black box model. This model is a random forest that I am using to make predictions. I have read that LIME is a way to interpret black box models, but I don't quite know how ...
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Interpreting ROC curves across k-fold cross-validation

I have used a MARS model (multivariate adaptive regression splines) and I have used k fold cross validation for the evaluation of the model, obtaining the following graph: How would be the ...
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How can I disaggregate the impact of a group of variables using machine learning?

I have a problem where the target variable Y (continuous, values: 0-1) is controlled by large number of variables. These variables can be grouped by the nature of the data: ...
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Using ML Interpretability Techniques for Data Analysis Instead of Strictly Model Analysis

Hope you lot are doing alright. I have been looking into Explainable AI and model interpretability lately, and I had an idea but am wondering whether it would constitute a valid use case. There is a ...
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Interpretation of VAR model: about impulse function and lag of p

For example, I have three time series, Y,X1,X2. After using time series cross validation and utilizing BIC/AIC to determine the best p as the lag of the VAR model, in which I got p = 1 to estimate the ...
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Why does SHAP's TreeExplainer with "interventional" method not match exact SHAP?

I am trying to understand the concepts/definitions behind the SHAP method of explaining model predictions. In particular I've read the original SHAP paper and the TreeExplainer paper. The original ...
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how to visualize segmented labels in a already existing graph?

I am working on a project where I have to segment the image using multi-class segmentation (3 classes) on microscopic images. Now let's say that I am segmenting solid, liquid and gas images (this is ...
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Feature importance by removing all other features?

For neural network feature importance, can I zero-out all features except one in order to gauge that feature's importance? I know shuffling a feature is one approach. For example, leaving in the 4th ...
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Decision Trees and SHAP Values

I've recently been using some (optimal) decision trees methods in R, such as 'evtree' and 'iai.' Both of these provide really nice interpretable plots. And out of the 12 covariates I have in my model, ...
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Why do I get this result with a chi- square test?

I have a question about the chi squared independence test, I'm working on dataset and I'm interested in finding the link between the categories of product and the gender, I plot my contingency table. ...
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1 answer
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Practical Interpretation of PCAs for a supplier analysis

I am using PCA to validate and research a set of 13 suppliers of products against a set of about 50 variables and performance indicators against an ideal "wish"-Supplier, mostly based on G. ...
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Answering the question of "WHY" using AI?

We have seen lots of natural occurrences that are happening in the whole world. Since we have great progress in technology and in particular AI, How can I employ <...
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Shapley values for channel attribution equal to linear attribution

I am looking into Shapley values for online marketing attribution. In recent time many articles seem to have been made on this particular approach to attribution (there are more): https://medium.com/...
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Understanding, visualizing and interpreting CNN activations

I am working with the first layer of a CNN and trying to understand how to interpret the activation output. My CNN takes input from 3 channels (RBG picture) and the first layer is ...
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Can absolute or relative contributions from X be calculated for a multiplicative model? $\log{ y}$ ~ $\log {x_1} + \log{x_2}$

(How) can absolute or relative contributions be calculated for a multiplicative (log-log) model? Relative contributions from a linear (additive) model E.g., there are 3 contributors to $y$ (given by ...
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What are available Python libraries for Interpretable ML?

I recently become familiar with Interpretable ML and I found some libraries like LIME. I would be thankful if you can suggest to me some libraries and what are the advantages of each library.
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paired t-test shows no difference between median and Wilcoxon test p value shows that there is a difference between median values ? How to interpret?

I have a dataset. I wanted to do paired t test on it. So I carried out normality test and it showed that it does not follow normal distribution. So I used Wilcoxon test in place of paired t test. The ...
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How to interpret my logistic regression result with statsmodels

so I'am doing a logistic regression with statsmodels and sklearn. My result confuses me a bit. I used a ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Suggestions for improvement? Time series of variation in relative frequency of emotion-related words in academic psychology over time

First time plotting and interpreting time series data and I have used a line plot for ease of use. I am aware this is incredibly basic, but any input/ recommendations would be much appreciated (e.g., ...
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How to increase sales and revenue of a Client?

I was asked this in an interview for a Data Scientist position: Lets say Holland and Barret came to you and said they'd like to increase their sales and revenue. How will you go about it? My answer ...
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1 answer
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Shapley values without intercept (or without `expected_value`)

I have a model and I want to derive its interpretability by using feature contributions. In the end, I want to have some contribution per feature such that the sum of contributions equals the ...
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Is there an intuitive interpretation of precision always higher than recall?

I have a multiclass-classifier whose macro-precision is always greater than macro-recall. I suppose it means false negatives outnumber false positives in general. Is there an intuitive interpretation ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Machine learning, speech recognition technologies for Sound of Animals interpretation [closed]

https://www.google.com/search?q=sound+of+animals&client=ms-android-lava&prmd=inv&sxsrf=ALeKk02xrn0-yn-FZSkidTogB4l4B_TH6A:1600539091086&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=...
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1 answer
254 views

How to interpret KDE distribution graph?

I would like to know how to interpret this distribution graph. I have been doing an exercise from the book called 'Python for Finance Cookbook' by Eryk Lewinson. It does not give an in-depth ...
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1 answer
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Types of maps in Interpretable Machine Learning

I have worked on Interpretable Machine Learning (IML) for over 1 year. However, there are some terminologies that always make me confused. For example, saliency maps/heat maps. Are they same? Are ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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How do standardization and normalization impact the coefficients of linear models?

One benefit of creating a linear model is that you can look at the coefficients the model learns and interpret them. For example, you can see which features have the most predictive power and which do ...
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2 votes
3 answers
144 views

How do I interpret the output of linear regression model in R?

I have the following linear regression model and its analysis. There are a few errors, but I am not very sure about the errors. I have not succeeded in finding them so far. First, the 95% confidence ...
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1 vote
1 answer
42 views

Identify significant features in clustering results

I'm a student in Data Analysis, working on a data clustering exercise. Two clusters have been identified based on a dataset with 40 features. To interpret and label these clusters, I'm wondering if ...
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What methods to get the intention behind questions (time, preferences, ...)?

I have a csv with different questions, answer and question types. So far I have only been able to differentiate the questions between muliple answers and likert scale. I would rather like to get the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
126 views

Does Karl Pearson correlation indicate linear relationship between two variables ? Or it indicates nonlinear relationship or simply the correlation?

Wikipedia and literature do not seem to convey correct interpretation of Karl Pearson correlation. A few authors interpret it as a linear correlation or association. To me it simply tells direction ...
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Can we use Shap to interpret output changes?

Can we calculate the difference between Shapley values to interpret changes in the output? More precisely, if we get Shapley values for two different inputs, can we compare them to understand how much ...
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Understanding CNN by visualizing class activations using GRAD_CAM

I followed the blog Where CNN is looking? to understand and visualize the class activations in order to predict something. The given example works very well. I have developed a custom model using ...
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1 vote
0 answers
38 views

Professionals appear to interpret sample correlation (e.g. Karl Pearson) as if it represents linear correlation. Is it the correct interpretation? [closed]

I am stressed following the wrong interpretation. What is the correct way of understanding a correlation coefficient.
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1 vote
0 answers
49 views

Difference between shap values and feature contributions

I always found both concepts a bit confusing since they are quite similar. Would someone provide clear example where to apply each? Shap values ref: https://towardsdatascience.com/explain-your-model-...
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1 answer
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Feature-to-parameter mapping in neural networks

For neural networks, can we tell which parameters are responsible for which features? For example, in an image classification task, each pixel of an image is a feature. Can I somehow find out which ...
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18 votes
5 answers
4k views

What is the difference between explainable and interpretable machine learning?

O’Rourke says that explainable ML uses a black box model and explains it afterwards, whereas interpretable ML uses models that are no black boxes. Christoph Molnar says interpretable ML refers to the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Drastic drop in Somers' D ? Why?

I came across to find the correlation between the ratings assigned by two coaches to a same group of 40 players. I have tabulated the results as below: The Somers' D is 50%. However, for the case ...
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2 votes
2 answers
347 views

How to interpret Correlation along with Coefficients of multiple linear regression ?£

I have 10000 samples. There are 4 independent variables and 1 dependent variable. The independent variables are all centered with 0 mean. I found the correlation coefficients between each of these ...
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1 answer
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How do I interpret loss in a neural network?

I am studying how to evaluate the performances of a convolutional neural network, and in particular I have seen that we have to look both at accuracy and loss. I don't understand why do we have to ...
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5 votes
2 answers
118 views

How to interpret two continous variables output using GAM?

I really need help with GAM. I have to find out whether association is linear or non-linear by using GAM. The predictor variable is temperature at lag0 and the output is cardiovascular admissions (...
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1 vote
2 answers
274 views

More output neurons than labels?

When we train a neural network model for a classification problem, we usually have a dense output layer of size equal to the number of labels we have. If the layer size was greater, the model can ...
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