# Questions tagged [interpretation]

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16 views

### Why can a model's SHAP values change on a new dataset?

Background I'm validating a model and as part of the process I've been calculating SHAP values for different validation datasets. I've calculated SHAP values for every sample in each dataset taken ...
23 views

### Help with multinomial logistic regression

I am a data science student and have the opportunity to work on an article regrading cardiac arrests in our country. For now I performed the multinomial regression model and I also plan on doing a ...
25 views

### How do I interpret a Scatter Plot of probabilities?

Help me with interpretation of the following scatter plot
41 views

### Shapley value calculation in the case of absent features

The basic assumption in Shapely value calculation (which is also known as situational importance) is the following: $$v_i(x) = f(x_1, ..., x_n) - E[f(x_1, ...,X_i,..., x_n)]$$ that is, the ...
69 views

### ValueError: X has 54 features, but DecisionTreeClassifier is expecting 53 features as input

I am analysing and prediction 2023 Cricket World Cup based on previous given dataset. This is Exploratary analysis: Feature selection and Training model: Applying Random forest classifier algorithm: ...
6 views

### Is ALE curve value constant for observations in the same interval?

I have been reading Chapter 8.2 of the Interpretable Machine Learning about Accumulated Local Effects (ALE) plots. It includes the following formula which defines the ALE value for a given value of ...
20 views

### Logistic regression negative coefficient interpretation (reciprocal of negative logistic coefficient )

Suppose if a dependent variable is having a disease (1) and not having a disease (0). similarly , independent variable is smoking and not smoking. here , not smoking as reference group. Again, if ...
1 vote
25 views

### Is there a statistical test for comparing my dataset percentages with published percentages?

I have a clinical dataset which is showing the percentage of A is 57% and B is 35% for where an tumours is initially found. However the literature is showing it is A is 73% and B is 23%. Is there a ...
20 views

### classification with rejection and how to interpret a 2D ambiguous data

Let's say we're going to train a classifier with the full data set. There's also a reject logic for ambiguous regions in the data. So, at the end, the final system outputs reject or 0 or 1. That is, ...
83 views

### Can't get attribute 'EBMPreprocessor' on while loading a Explainable Boosting Machine model in a pickle file

I was loading an EBM model in a pickle file to my testing file, but it gives this error : AttributeError: Can't get attribute 'EBMPreprocessor' on <module 'interpret.glassbox.ebm.ebm' from '/Users/...
81 views

### Which intrinsically explainable model has the highest performance?

Explainable AI can be achieved through intrinsically explainable models, like logistic and linear regression, or post-hoc explanations, like SHAP. I want to use an intrinsically explainable model on ...
40 views

### Efficient ways of clustering for big data

I have a task which is customer segmentation with 120k users and a record of their purchases which is +3 million records of data, the approach I want to use is to use clustering algorithms like kmeans ...
8 views

### Neural net: linear surrogate model performs better than "ex ante" linear model

I try to predict something with a feed-forward neural network. More specifically, I fit 5 neural nets and take the average of the predictions - this is then my ...
383 views

### How do I combine two different measures of correlation coefficients?

In the dataset, we have a numerical feature and a numerical target. We are calculating the Pearson coefficient and Spearman rank correlation. Pearson to track the linear relationship and Spearman to ...
1 vote
39 views

### Interpreting model

If I trained a model (say logistic regression) on train, test and validation. During interpretation which dataset (test or validation) should I base on for interpretation? If test and validation shows ...
17 views

### How "much" should belief be weighted against numerical measures of accuracy/correctness?

How "much" should belief be weighted against numerical measures of accuracy/correctness? It's possible to devise numerically low-quality models, but that have very good empirical validity, ...
53 views

### What are some "best practices" for discovering true patterns in data without relying on "scores" as measures of accuracy?

What are some "best practices" for discovering true patterns in data without knowing about them and without relying on "scores" as measures of accuracy? In university I was always ...
1 vote
27 views

### Interpreting visualisations for write ups - clustermaps

I produced a clustermap as part of an attempt to visualise any multicollinearity in a dataset and it's occurred to me that I actually don't really know how to interpret it. There is plenty of ...
30 views

### When is scaling and centering important?

There are some models such as PCA or SVM where scaling and centering of training data is essential. There are some models, mostly tree-based where scaling and centering is not required at all. I don't ...
1 vote
122 views

### How to interpret a linear regression effects graph?

could someone tell me how to interpret the following graph? It corresponds to a graph in which the effects of the variables in a linear regression are observed, but its interpretation is not clear to ...
305 views

### Interpreting ROC curves across k-fold cross-validation

I have used a MARS model (multivariate adaptive regression splines) and I have used k fold cross validation for the evaluation of the model, obtaining the following graph: How would be the ...
1 vote
120 views

### Correlation analysis yields conflicting results. Positive Pearson and Negative Spearman

I have four features x1,x2,x3,x4. All of their correlation with y are similar in Pearson correlation and in Spearman rank correlation separately. However, all these are +0.15 in Pearson and -0.6 in ...
349 views

### how to visualize segmented labels in a already existing graph?

I am working on a project where I have to segment the image using multi-class segmentation (3 classes) on microscopic images. Now let's say that I am segmenting solid, liquid and gas images (this is ...
1 vote
97 views

### Why do I get this result with a chi- square test?

I have a question about the chi squared independence test, I'm working on dataset and I'm interested in finding the link between the categories of product and the gender, I plot my contingency table. ...
1 vote
33 views

### Practical Interpretation of PCAs for a supplier analysis

I am using PCA to validate and research a set of 13 suppliers of products against a set of about 50 variables and performance indicators against an ideal "wish"-Supplier, mostly based on G. ...
28 views

### Answering the question of "WHY" using AI?

We have seen lots of natural occurrences that are happening in the whole world. Since we have great progress in technology and in particular AI, How can I employ <...
224 views

I am looking into Shapley values for online marketing attribution. In recent time many articles seem to have been made on this particular approach to attribution (there are more): https://medium.com/...
1 vote
63 views

### Understanding, visualizing and interpreting CNN activations

I am working with the first layer of a CNN and trying to understand how to interpret the activation output. My CNN takes input from 3 channels (RBG picture) and the first layer is ...
535 views

### Can absolute or relative contributions from X be calculated for a multiplicative model? $\log{ y}$ ~ $\log {x_1} + \log{x_2}$

(How) can absolute or relative contributions be calculated for a multiplicative (log-log) model? Relative contributions from a linear (additive) model E.g., there are 3 contributors to $y$ (given by ...
158 views

### What are available Python libraries for Interpretable ML?

I recently become familiar with Interpretable ML and I found some libraries like LIME. I would be thankful if you can suggest to me some libraries and what are the advantages of each library.
1 vote
37 views

### paired t-test shows no difference between median and Wilcoxon test p value shows that there is a difference between median values ? How to interpret?

I have a dataset. I wanted to do paired t test on it. So I carried out normality test and it showed that it does not follow normal distribution. So I used Wilcoxon test in place of paired t test. The ...
1 vote
1k views

### How to interpret my logistic regression result with statsmodels

so I'am doing a logistic regression with statsmodels and sklearn. My result confuses me a bit. I used a ...
27 views

### Suggestions for improvement? Time series of variation in relative frequency of emotion-related words in academic psychology over time

First time plotting and interpreting time series data and I have used a line plot for ease of use. I am aware this is incredibly basic, but any input/ recommendations would be much appreciated (e.g., ...
30 views

### How to increase sales and revenue of a Client?

I was asked this in an interview for a Data Scientist position: Lets say Holland and Barret came to you and said they'd like to increase their sales and revenue. How will you go about it? My answer ...
372 views

### Shapley values without intercept (or without expected_value)

I have a model and I want to derive its interpretability by using feature contributions. In the end, I want to have some contribution per feature such that the sum of contributions equals the ...
1 vote
170 views

### Is there an intuitive interpretation of precision always higher than recall?

I have a multiclass-classifier whose macro-precision is always greater than macro-recall. I suppose it means false negatives outnumber false positives in general. Is there an intuitive interpretation ...
54 views

975 views

### How to interpret KDE distribution graph?

I would like to know how to interpret this distribution graph. I have been doing an exercise from the book called 'Python for Finance Cookbook' by Eryk Lewinson. It does not give an in-depth ...
38 views

### Types of maps in Interpretable Machine Learning

I have worked on Interpretable Machine Learning (IML) for over 1 year. However, there are some terminologies that always make me confused. For example, saliency maps/heat maps. Are they same? Are ...
3k views

### How do standardization and normalization impact the coefficients of linear models?

One benefit of creating a linear model is that you can look at the coefficients the model learns and interpret them. For example, you can see which features have the most predictive power and which do ...
368 views

### How do I interpret the output of linear regression model in R?

I have the following linear regression model and its analysis. There are a few errors, but I am not very sure about the errors. I have not succeeded in finding them so far. First, the 95% confidence ...
1 vote
60 views

### Identify significant features in clustering results

I'm a student in Data Analysis, working on a data clustering exercise. Two clusters have been identified based on a dataset with 40 features. To interpret and label these clusters, I'm wondering if ...
51 views

### What methods to get the intention behind questions (time, preferences, ...)?

I have a csv with different questions, answer and question types. So far I have only been able to differentiate the questions between muliple answers and likert scale. I would rather like to get the ...
1 vote
290 views

### Does Karl Pearson correlation indicate linear relationship between two variables?

Wikipedia and literature do not seem to convey correct interpretation of Karl Pearson correlation. Also, some of the authors interpret it as a linear correlation or association. To me it simply tells ...
1 vote
56 views

### Can we use Shap to interpret output changes?

Can we calculate the difference between Shapley values to interpret changes in the output? More precisely, if we get Shapley values for two different inputs, can we compare them to understand how much ...
128 views

### Understanding CNN by visualizing class activations using GRAD_CAM

I followed the blog Where CNN is looking? to understand and visualize the class activations in order to predict something. The given example works very well. I have developed a custom model using ...
1 vote
42 views

### Professionals appear to interpret sample correlation (e.g. Karl Pearson) as if it represents linear correlation. Is it the correct interpretation? [closed]

I am stressed following the wrong interpretation. What is the correct way of understanding a correlation coefficient.
1 vote
122 views

### Difference between shap values and feature contributions

I always found both concepts a bit confusing since they are quite similar. Would someone provide clear example where to apply each? Shap values ref: https://towardsdatascience.com/explain-your-model-...