# Questions tagged [mathematics]

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26 views

### Find periodicity of a signal using python

I have a dataset that contains occurrences of the Kettle in a single-occupancy house for the duration of a month. In this dataset, ‘ts’ column indicates the unix-timestamp (this can be converted to ...
36 views

### Python - accessing dictionary values for math operations [closed]

I have this dictionary: stocks = {'FB': 255, 'AAPL': 431, 'TSLA': 1700} and this script: ...
38 views

### AdaBoost.R2 learning rate from scikit learn

AdaBoost.R2 (regression), is presented in the paper "improving regressors with boosting techniques" from Drucker and is freely available on Scholar. The implementation of regression for ...
54 views

### How does Batch normalization help optimization? Proof

I am reading the paper How Does Batch Normalization Help Optimization found here. $\newcommand{\norm}{\left\lVert#1\right\rVert}$ But I am having trouble understanding the proof of the paper. It's ...
43 views

### Why Adaboost SAMME needs f to be estimable?

I am trying to understand the mathematics behind SAMME AdaBoost: https://web.stanford.edu/~hastie/Papers/samme.pdf At some stage, the paper adds a constraint for f to be estimable: I do not ...
23 views

### Mathematics: Writing down a three-class classifier confusion matrix

Confusion matrix 2A three-class classifier is evaluated on a test set of 900 samples which containsall three classes in equal proportions. ...
27 views

### Fully-Connected DNN: Compute the numbers of free parameter in a DNN

A fully-connected DNN has layer sizes of 3-3-4-2, where the first layer size represents the input layer. We assume that all layers are affine ones (no ReLU). Give the dimensions of all weight matrices ...
43 views

### Mathematics: Can the result of a derivative for the Gradient Descent consist of only one value?

I have a problem of a task using the formula of the Gradient Descent: Perform two steps of the gradient descent towards a local minimum for the function given below, using a step size of 0.1 and an ...
12 views

### Explanation on some steps of AdaBoost.R2

I am trying to understand AdaBoost.R2 in order to implement it and apply it to a regression problem. In this circumstances I need to understand it perfectly, however there's some step i don't really ...
8 views

### Projecting 3D Chemical Data Onto a 2D Plane in Motion

I'm trying to model the rotation of two hydrogen atoms about a carbon atom. Say I have a conceptual wheel on an axle that is attached to my car. The axle is described by two points in 3D space, as ...
104 views

### How propagate the error delta in backpropagation in convolutional neural networks (CNN)?

My CNN has the following structure: Output neurons: 10 Input matrix (I): 28x28 Convolutional layer (C): 3 feature maps with a 5x5 kernel (output dimension is 3x24x24) Max pooling layer (MP): size 2x2 ...
12 views

### Algorithm that predicts a next series of numbers

I have the data I want to input and see the results. It is number Data based on Marko Rodins Vortex Math. So I have these random 6 numbers from 1 to 9 it is data from the past 9 years. I need an ...
14 views

### Creating Scoring Functions

As a data scientist/analyst is there any resource I can use to solve non-conventional supervised/unsupervised learning problems, for example: Based on hotels in a city create a score for how popular ...
11 views

### Determining the degree of freedom in ridge regression | Interpretation of the head matrix

right now, I am diving into statistical learning and stumbled over the so-called "head-matrix" and the determination of the degree of freedom. I am referring to ridge regression: So the ...
21 views

### Flow System - Analysing Measurement Errors

I have a closed system with multiple flow measurement points as shown; where in theory (A1 + A2 + A3) = (B1 + B2 + B3) = C = (D1 + D2) and D1 = (E1 + E2 + E3 + E4) D2 = (F1 + F2 + F3 + F4) Some of ...
183 views

### Different activation function in same layer of a Neural network

My question is that what will happen if I arrange different activation functions in the same layer of a neural network and continue the same trend for the other hidden layers. Suppose I have 3 ...
10 views

### How to compute Fourier Transform complexity?

I would like to know what is wrong with my reasoning: 1D Transform Let suppose we have row vector with N rows I apply Fourier transform for single row I get O(log N) Then after stacking N rows to ...
40 views

### What is the underlying difference between linear and non-linear relationship?

Study on linear correlation coefficient and nonlinear correlation coefficient in mathematical statistics WANG Ting, ZHANG Shiqiang Studies in Mathematical Sciences 3 (1), 58-63, 2011 From the above ...
23 views

### logarithmic exponential function python

The code below (I found from googling) does the trick in terms of outcome. What I need to work out is the formula for this, so for any Y point we can get corresponding X. This is part of a larger ...
18 views

### What are some modern algorithms\analysis that use Taylor Series or Lagrange multipliers?

What are some modern machine learning algorithms\analysis that use Taylor Series or Lagrange multipliers? I spent a good chunk of my weekend reading about SQP, aka SLSQP. SciPy has an implementation, ...
41 views

### How to compute Hessian matrix for log-likelihood function for Logistic Regression

I am currently studying the Elements of Statistical Learning book. The following equation is in page 120. It calculates the Hessian matrix for the log-likelihood function as follows \begin{equation} ...
60 views

### Is there a possibility that there is no relationship between some inputs and outputs?

I have a general question that comes to my mind, I'm doing machine learning projects and I took a look at many datasets and worked with, mostly there are already famous datasets that everyone uses. ...
31 views

### How to adaptively sample n-dimensional data and build an optimum training set

My input space is at least 10 dimensional (after reducing it by various component analysis such as PCA) and the output space is 4 dimensional. I am building a neural network that works something like ...
11 views

### What is the difference between “letter”-dimensional vector types?

What is the difference between D-dimensional vectors and S-dimensional vectors? Are there any other "letter"-dimensional vectors which one should be aware of? I am reading about occupancy modeling ...
26 views

### LONG SHORT-TERM MEMORY Hochreiter's paper BPTT

I was trying to read paper about LSTM, and I am stuck with mathematical problem. http://www.bioinf.jku.at/publications/older/2604.pdf page 4. see, |$f'_l$$_m(net_l$$_m$)$w_l$$_m _l$$_m$$_-$$_1$...
66 views

### How does one derive the modified tanh activation proposed by LeCun?

In "Efficient Backprop" (http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/publis/pdf/lecun-98b.pdf), LeCun and others propose a modified tanh activation function of the form: $$f(x) = 1.7159 * tanh(\frac{2}{3}*x)$$ ...
28 views

### What level of math is required for machine learning research

There are several levels of math understanding: Know the math Know the intuitions behind math concepts Know the intuitions and proofs of math concepts Know the intuitions, proofs of math concepts and ...
30 views

### Generative Model for learning Periodic solutions 3-body/N-body problems

I am tasked with finding research where a GAN or any other generative model is used to generate new shapes of 3-bodies moving under the influence of each others' gravitational pull, in a periodic ...
23 views

### intuitive understanding of (1+parameter)/parameter

When looking at a function that contains term (1+parameter)/parameter, should there be an intuitive understanding for why this term is included. For example if a function for fishing mortality ...
38 views

### Computational Complexity of Tucker decomposition

I am currently doing background reading for my Masters Thesis. I am working with tensor decompositions, whereby tensor I simply mean a multi-dimensional array. The aim of my master's project is to ...
10 views

### Roots and discriminant of a polynomial

Intro I'm reviewing maths all the way from high school, because even though I have experience in machine learning, I have really poor maths basics. I'm currently reviewing polynomials, especially ...
91 views

I am currently trying to understand exponentiated gradient from this paper. Here is an implementation of the Algorithm in Python. So my question using exponentiated-gradient algorithm we can update ...
385 views

### How regularization helps to get rid of outliers?

I have heard regularization helps to get rid of outliers, how so? 'My intuition is, regularization shrinks parameter or even make it zero, and hence large value will have less effect on overall result'...
22 views

### Is there a universal convergence rate when stacking models/experts?

It's fairly common to see people stacking different models when chasing marginal gains in contexts such as Kaggle competitions or the Netflix challenge. I would like to know about the mathematics ...
88 views

### ML, Statistics and Mathematics

I have just started getting my hands wet in ML and every time I try delving deeper into the concepts/code, I face the challenges of the mathematics and its cryptic notations. Coming from a Computer ...
41 views

### How do I know how to construct the layers of my CNN

I've done a CNN project with Keras and OpenCV, and I've got roughly 65% accuracy. And now I have to present this work in my University, but I'm afraid if the teachers ask me for how do I knew how to ...
177 views

### Help in understanding the maths behind Logistic Regression

I am following the lecture notes available https://www.stat.cmu.edu/~cshalizi/uADA/12/lectures/ch12.pdf I cannot understand how Eqs 12.4 and 12.5 come, why the Bernoulli probability has $1-p(x)$ in ...
16 views

### Is this interpretation of spectral normalisation mathematically correct?

Hello everyone, this is my first post. I was thinking about the mathematical interpretation for spectral normalization in neural networks the other day, and I came up with an explanation that feels ...
33 views

### Kernel Trick and Inner Product Preservation

I understand that the point of using the kernel trick is to project the problem onto a higher dimensional space, where the problem is linearly separable. In this explanation, https://www.quora.com/...
776 views

### How do I calculate the range of a F1-score from a confusion matrix of 3 class,A,B,C

Is there any support function to calculate the average F1-score range?
We have a neural network with inputs $x_1,...,x_n$, a single hidden layer with neurons $y_1,\ldots,y_m$, and outputs $z_1,...,z_v$. There are no activation functions (i.e., the activation functions ...