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Questions tagged [notation]

Notation refers to a specific way of writing various concepts, functions, etc. Usually it is introduced to abbreviate complicated expressions and make common idioms more readable.

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Is the semicolon (;) notation used to indicate operations are performed concurrently in backpropagation algorithm by Bengio?

I am trying to understand the backpropagation algorithm in a multi-layer perceptron environment. Algorithm 6.4 Backward computation for the deep neural network of algorithm 6.3, which uses, in ...
Revolucion for Monica's user avatar
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1 answer

Blocks, factors and treatments in designed experiments

I have recently began studying a course on Designed Experiments and am having some trouble understanding some of the terminology. I've looked at some other answers on the site and I think that I am ...
FD_bfa's user avatar
  • 101
2 votes
1 answer

Explain notation in Bishop Eq 1.60

I'm starting to work through Bishop's "Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning" book, and have run into unfamiliar notation. Eq. 160 is prefaced by saying "For this purpose, we shall ...
Jolyon's user avatar
  • 123
1 vote
1 answer

What is meant by this notation for ensemble classifier error rate

The below is a picture which denotes the error of an ensemble classifier. Can someone help me understand the notation What does it mean to have (25 and i) in brackets and what is ε^1 is it error of ...
Arun Jose's user avatar
  • 125
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Probability notation q(y) and q(Y) and its implication to vector functions

The function in question is (from Appendix B, Proof of proposition 2.1 from Posterior Regularization for Structured Latent Variable Models): $$q(\textbf{Z}) = \frac{p_{\theta}(\textbf{Z}|\textbf{X})...
Martin G's user avatar
  • 131
6 votes
1 answer

What types of matrix multiplication are used in Machine Learning? When are they used?

I'm looking at equations for neural networks and backpropagation and I see this symbol in the equations, ⊙. I thought matrix multiplication of neural networks always involved matrices that matched ...
Ant's user avatar
  • 187
2 votes
2 answers

Formal math notation of masked vector

I'm struggling to write my algorithm in a concise and correct way. The following is an explanation for an optimizer's update step of part of a vector of weights (not a matrix in my case). I have a ...
leed's user avatar
  • 145
4 votes
3 answers

Notation for features (general notation for continuous and discrete random variables)

I'm looking for the right notation for features from different types. Let us say that my samples as $m$ features that can be modeled with $X_1,...,X_m$. The features Don't share the same distribution (...
Yael M's user avatar
  • 41
2 votes
1 answer

Layer notation for feed forward neural networks

Apologies in advance, for I have a fairly rudimentary question on the notations for studying Feed-Forward Neural Networks. Here is a nice schematic taken from this blog-post. Here $x_i = f_i(W_i \...
Pavithran Iyer's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer

What does the pair of vertical lines in empirical entropy formula mean?

I am learning from this post. $\alpha$ is the ratio of the first subset, $$\alpha=\frac{\left|D_{1}\right|}{\left|D\right|}$$ according to the context and code of the post, $\left|D\right|$ means ...
Jay's user avatar
  • 425
1 vote
1 answer

Meaning of equation for CNN probabilities

So the first equation above refers to a CNN (rather a committee of CNNs) for image classification. I am unable to understand exactly what the author is trying to do in the first equation. So far, I ...
Stormlight's user avatar
2 votes
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PAC Learnability - Notation

The following is from Understanding Machine Learning: Theory to Algorithm textbook: Definition of PAC Learnability: A hypothesis class $\mathcal H$ is PAC learnable if there exist a function $m_H : (...
tkj80's user avatar
  • 139
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Does this notation mean vector-concatenation?

When reading papers on neural networks, I occasionally stumble upon the following notation with a semicolon: $$ \text{tanh}(\mathbf{W_c}[\mathbf{c}_t;\mathbf{h}_t]) $$ Unless otherwise noted, does ...
Kari's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer

Layer notation for convolutional neural networks

When reading about convolutional neural networks (CNNs), I often come across a special notation used in the community and in scientific papers, describing the architecture of the network in terms of ...
Czechnology's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer

Cannot see what the "notation abuse" is, mentioned by author of book

From Sutton and Barto, Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction (second edition draft), in equation 3.4 of page 38. The probabilities given by the four-argument function p completely characterize ...
cinqS's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer

Why is an activation function notated as "g"?

In many cases an activation function is notated as g (e.g. Andrew Ng's Course courses), especially if it doesn't refer to any specific activation function such as ...
Blaszard's user avatar
  • 911
2 votes
2 answers

Pound notation in Summation

I was going through a paper comparing glove and word2vec. I came across the pound notation shown below. What does it mean when used like this? The link for paper is here
Sagar Patel's user avatar