Questions tagged [reinforcement-learning]

Area of machine learning concerned with how software agents ought to take actions in an environment so as to maximize some notion of cumulative reward.

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33 views

How to generate plot of reward and its variance?

I am new to reinforcement learning and I would like know how to generate a learning curve plot such as that shown below (taken from this blog post), that illustrates the reward (return) and its ...
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Reward Function for NLP

I would like to design an reward function , I am training two models from the first model that classify set of texts(paragraphs and keywords) and I also got some hidden states. The second model is ...
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What should be the next step once I trained an A2C agent?

I'm exploring trading using reinforcement learning and I'm trying to figure out some parts of "what to do after training an agent". The way I trained it was by giving the agent a train dataset and ...
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What would be the output from tensorflow dense layer if we assign itself as input and output while making a neural network?

I have been going through the implementation of neural network in openAI code for any Vanilla Policy Gradient (As a matter of fact, this part is used nearly everywhere). The code looks something like ...
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Free a bit of RAM space

Here is Colab Notebook After 1500 episodes if batch_size=256, the RAM crashed. With Colab, I have the equivalent of 25.5 gigs of RAM. Is it normal? Or I don't have ...
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How can I save this model(s) and why is the use for “with tf.Graph().as_default()”

I have been trying to train and then compile this RL algo. My problem comes when I want to save the three models. Here is how the neural networks are defined: ...
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Truncated Backpropagation Through Time (TBBTT) in Reinforcement Learning

I am currently looking at the OpenAI Five paper from OpenAI. For backpropagation they write: ...
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Bandit program using epsilon-greedy

I started to learn reinforcement learning, the first example is handling bandit program using epsilon-greedy method, In this example, there are three bandit machines used, the output is the mean value ...
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Action selection in actor-critic algorithm:

I have an action space that is just a list of values given by acts = [i for i in range(10, 100, 10)]. According to pytorch documentary, the loss is calculated as below. Could someone explain to me how ...
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Representation of state space, action space and reward system for RL porblem

I am trying to solve the problem of an agent dynamically discovering(start with no information about the environment) the environment and to explore as much of the environment as possible without ...
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1answer
14 views

The meaning of γt−t0 in Reinforcement learning with pytorch

When reading pytorch tutorial: Our aim will be to train a policy that tries to maximize the discounted, cumulative reward Rt0=∑∞t=t0γt−t0rt, where ...
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Definition of obstacles in new OpenAI gym environment

I study a Reinforcement Learning algorithm that navigate an agent from one initial point to another in a complex environment where other agents and obstacles exists too. I want to make my own gym ...
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58 views

Sudden drop of score in the last few episodes

I was following this tutorial about lunar lander and deep Q learning with Tensorflow 2 and I noticed something odd. The problem was actually solved at episode 476 but then the score went from 259.90 ...
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Purpose of trace-decay parameter in eligibility traces

In TD/SARSA-lambda, eligibility traces are decayed after each step by multiplying by the discount rate and the trace-decay parameter. I understand that: The discount rate is used to reduce the value ...
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Reward(t) vs. Reward(t+1) ? Reinforcement Learning, Q-learning

In "Reinforcement Learning, An Introduction; Richard S. Sutton and Andrew G. Barto" is written on page 70: 3.1 The Agent–Environment Interface At each time step t, the agent receives some ...
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Policy Gradient with Baseline Reward Oscillation (MATLAB Reinforcement Learning Toolbox)

I'm trying to train a Policy Gradient Agent with Baseline for my RL research. I'm using the in-built RL toolbox from MATLAB (https://www.mathworks.com/help/reinforcement-learning/ug/pg-agents.html) ...
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49 views

Index tensor must have same dimensions as input tensor

I am trying to train a DQN to do optimal energy scheduling. Each state comes as a vector of 4 variables (represented by floats) saved in the replay memory as a state tensor, each action is an integer ...
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What's the definition of retraining?

In transfer learning, we always use new data to retrain the pre-trained model. But, what is the specific and official definition of retraining? Or what papers mentioned this definition, in transfer ...
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85 views

Q-learning, state transition, immediate rewards (trading logic)

I've been thinking about how to correctly calculate rewards for several weeks now. Here is a grid example: ...
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33 views

When should the last action be included in the state in reinforcement learning?

I am having some confusion as to whether the action should be included as part of the state input to an agent in a reinforcement learning setting (state-action pair). As from my observation, this is ...
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Deep Reinforcement Learning [closed]

I am new in this field and I am trying to understand the Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) model. I can not understand the use of the target network in this model. Why do we need to define the ...
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16 views

find the parameter of model with Q learning

I have a question with regard to Q learning. I am a beginner in Q learning. Every example that I saw is related to the environment that the goal is assigned to a place. (like cliff walk that we know ...
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32 views

Reinforcement algorithm for Trading

I am trying to implement a Reinforcement Learning Algorithm in a trading scenario. It seems natural to me to use final profit as the reward. However, in this scenario, for each trading episode, there ...
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Reinforcement Learning : Why acting greedily with the optimal value function gives you the optimal policy?

The course of David Silver about Reinforcement Learning explains how you get the optimal policy from the optimal value function. It seems to be very simple, you just have to act greedily, by ...
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Reinforcement Learning: Policy Gradient derivation question

I have been reading this excellent post: https://medium.com/@jonathan_hui/rl-policy-gradients-explained-9b13b688b146 and following the RL-videos by David Silver, and I did not get this thing: For $\...
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1answer
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Hindsight Experience Replay (HER) results obtained 50 times faster than original paper?

I am reproducing the results from Hindsight Experience Replay by Andrychowicz et. al. In the original paper they present the results below, where the agent is trained for 200 epochs. 200 epochs * 800 ...
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18 views

Multi Agent Reinforcement learning with communincation between the agents

I am trying to build reinforcement learning agents using DQN and policy gradient algorithms and OpenAI. There needs to some exchange of information that needs to happen between these agents to share ...
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9 views

Binary value as observation in Observation space Stable Baselines

How would a binary value (0,1) make sense in an observation space that is between 0 and 1? In Stable baselines I use a continuous observation space between 0 and 1. ...
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18 views

Markov Decision Process representation

I'm attempting to model a simple process using a Markov Decision Process. Let $A$ be a set of $3$ actions : $ A \in \{b,s\}$. $T(s,a,s')$ represents the probability of if in state $s$ , take action $...
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Simulating mental disorders in machine learning systems

Is there any work as the following example in ML: Suppose a reinforcement learning system which has a fixed penalty for every ...
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1answer
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How is the target_f updated in the Keras solution to the Deep Q-learning Cartpole/Gym algorithm?

There's a popular solution to the CartPole game using Keras and Deep Q-Learning: https://keon.github.io/deep-q-learning/ But there's a line of code that's confusing, this same question has been asked ...
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Q learning for blackjack, reward function?

I am currently learning reinforcement learning and am have built a blackjack game. There is an obvious reward at the end of the game (payout), however some actions do not directly lead to rewards (...
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1answer
35 views

Dynamic pricing with aggregate constraints

so I have this situation. I am trying to understand whether my customers will buy my product at a certain price based on a previous offer made to them. Specifically, I have a lot of data on my clients ...
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102 views

Deep reinforcement learning with multi-dimensional action

I am trying to design reinforcement learning algorithm. My action and state space are continuous. Action, which I would like to take can be represented by a matrix, lets say of dimension $n \times n$. ...
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Actions taken by agentn/ agent performance not improving

Hi I am trying to develop an rl agent using PPO algorithm. My agent takes an action(CFM) to maintain a state variable called RAT in between 24 to 24.5. I am using PPO algorithm of stable-baselines ...
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1answer
43 views

Assistance needed on what machine learning approach to use

👋 I'm currently writing my Master's Thesis on Subjective tagging of sounds and I feel that I've been stuck with the same problem for quite a time now and need assistance to progress. I'll, in short, ...
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29 views

Cold-start problem in Real Time Bidding

I'm currently on the reading stage of the deployment of an RTB system. I've seen the problem of a cold start (having no initial guess of how to bid) in several papers, but I haven't really seen it be ...
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Why replay memory store old states and action rather than Q-value (Deep Q-learning)

Here is the algorithm use in Google's DeepMind Atari paper The replay memory D store transition (old_state, action performed, reward, new_state) The old_state and the performed action a are needed ...
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2answers
32 views

Idenitity between TD(0) algorithm and Policy Evaluation in Dynamic Programming when alpha is equal to 1

TD(0) algorithm is defined as the iterative update of the following: $$ V(s) \leftarrow V(s) + \alpha({r + \gamma V(s')} - V(s) ) $$ Now, if we assume alpha to be equal to 1, we get the traditional ...
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2answers
111 views

Deep Q Network gives same Q values and doesn't improve

I'm trying to build a deep Q network to play snake. I've run into an issue where the agent doesn't learn and its performance at the end of the training cycle is to repeatedly kill itself. After a bit ...
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32 views

Reinforcement learning with sparse acting agent

I'm working on a problem where the optimal policy involves the agent "doing nothing" most of the time, and "doing something" during rare critical moments. Is there any literature or best practices ...
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1answer
102 views

Would Deep Q Learning work for a finite horizon problem?

I want to apply Deep Q Learning to a problem, which has a clear finite horizon definition, like: $$V(s) = \mathbb{E}[r_1 + r_2]$$ Since the horizon is finite, I do not use reward discounting. My ...
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25 views

Reinforcement Learning techniques to use if there is a direct connecction between (state, action) and reward

I want to build a model. The input state is a combination of different numbers in sequence (Their orders matter to the final result). The effectiveness of such number combination can be computed into ...
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1answer
35 views

How to improve tensorflow 2.0 code for policy gradient?

I recreated some code I found online for solving the bandits problem using policy gradient. The example was in tensorflow 1.0 so I recreated it with tensorflow 2.0 using eager execution and gradient ...
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1answer
67 views

Multiply Tensorflow sequential layer by fixed integers

I'm trying to make a simple reinforcement learning model that makes one of three decisions, A, B, or ...
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14 views

Vowpal Wabbit, Daemon mode “write error: Bad file descriptor”

I'm using the Vowpal Image provided by AWS @ amazonaws.com/sagemaker-rl-vw-container:vw-8.7.0-cpu. However, when I run Vowpal in daemon mode ...
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95 views

Why is orthogonal weights initialization so important for PPO?

I have implemented PPO to solve Atari environments. For the longest time I couldn't figure out why my model would not converge as fast as other open source solutions. Eventually it boiled down to this ...
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Incentivizing curiosity in a sparse reward environment

I'm quite new to reinforcement learning, but have been exploring different kinds of architectures (DQN, dueling DQN, actor critic, etc.) and evaluating their ability to solve certain problems. The ...
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Reinforcement learning converges for mean loss but not for each training data

Here I show a dummy example that represents my actual problem. My neural network (NN) receives one input and gives the probabilities for two output nodes. The code for the NN is: ...

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