# Questions tagged [weighted-data]

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### How to calculate the sum of all the possible answers in a single-choice questionnaire?

I am not sure if this is the right place to ask this question but imagine there are a number of single-choice questions with each answer having a numeric value (weight) assigned to it. For example: <...
4 views

### With infinite observations, would the weights resulting from ridge regression be the same as simple linear regression?

As the number of observations approaches infinity, do the weights of a linear regression approach the weights of a linear regression with L2 penalty?
22 views

### How to properly linearize data (if possible)

I was assigned the task of linearizing some of my data, which exhibits a non-linear appearance. When using the distfit library, it indicated that my data's distribution is closest to a gamma function. ...
10 views

### How to account for exponential oversampling?

I have a dataset of frequencies from 20Hz to 20kHz. The measurement rig that created the dataset doesn't sample evenly across this frequency range. There is a much higher density of sampling happening ...
37 views

### Train CNN weights by using FFT - Reinforcement Learning?

Assume that you are doing convolution inside a CNN network, by using FFT because FFT is much way faster than using 4-5 for-loops etc. But how should I train the weights if I know the output of my CNN ...
84 views

### Learning with duplicate count as sample weights

I have a dataset D: X = D.drop(columns=['target']) y = D['target'] D is large, but contains huge number of duplicates - and I want to speedup the learning process. ...
37 views

### How to calculate the coefficients of a weighted nonlinear regresion model

I'm trying to build an Excel-sheet that's able to find the a,b and c coefficient of a simple y=ax^2+bx+c model. This is clear enough by the following math. But the data I'm using is heteroscedastic, ...
10 views

### What is the best way to apply Bootstapped weights to data for statistical analysis?

I'm working with a survey dataset for some statistical analysis. My issue is that there are weight columns, but I have no idea how they did the weighting or what the weights are for. I'm not familiar ...
11 views

### Assigning Final Scores to Identified Technologies: Considering Users' Reputation, badge counts, post scores, no.of posts, & post date

I am trying to determine the importance of various factors in assigning a score for identified technologies using the user's StackOverflow post tags and content. The considering factors are users' ...
10 views

### Meaning of unit weight for negative impressions in 'Deep Neural Networks for YouTube Recommendations'

I'm having some trouble understanding this section of the paper: Deep Neural Networks for YouTube Recommendations 4.2 Modeling Expected Watch Time ... The model is trained with logistic regression ...
31 views

### How to assign weights in data analysis

I have a dataset that has a field 'Course' and for each course, there is a varying number of lessons. I am trying to compare the number of quizzes accessed for each of the lessons and group by course ...
332 views

### How to calculate the weighted sum for Neural Network

I like to clear the concept for neural network. I have a dataset. It is a toy dataset ...
40 views

### Custom layers in Keras -- custom weights

I am trying to understand how to build custom layers in Keras and I went through a couple examples: here and here. The syntax is, of course, similar, but in non of the cases it is addressed why ...
1 vote
187 views

### XGBoost: How to obtain scale_pos_weight for multi classes?

I know there is a similar Qn at Unbalanced multiclass data with XGBoost. But I don't understand the reply provided by @Esmailian. What is the actual formula to obtain 1, 0.333 and 0.167? ...
1 vote
27 views

### Logistic Regression : shouldn't weighting by the number of instances give the same result ? What could explain the discrepency?

I am performing a logistic regression in a standard supervised framework (Data Set X, target y). The dataset X is composed of a handfull of categorical variables (that I one-hot encode), thus it ...
80 views

### Is there R functions that allow to test for overdispersion when fitting a model with survey design?

I realized I need to use the package survey to be able to include sample weights in my regression analysis. Initially, I wanted to use a negative binomial regression on each one of my outcomes as ...
39 views

### Weighting the loss function based on previous seen true positive rates

Similiar to class imbalance there is always something I would call "learnability imbalance" in multi-class classification. What I mean by that: Even when the classes are evenly distributed ...
1 vote
56 views

### Reducing (Variance) | the gap between my weights

I have ML ready samples. And each sample has a weight. The weights distribute between [0-1] My problem arise because there are a lot of samples which are ...
2k views

### Specifying class or sample weights in Keras for one-hot encoded labels in a TF Dataset

I am trying to train an image classifier on an unbalanced training set. In order to cope with the class imbalance, I want either to weight the classes or the individual samples. Weighting the classes ...
63 views

### Do we have any method which handles the imbalanced classification with sample weighting instead of class weighting?

I am looking for methods that use sample weighting instead of class weighting for the imbalanced classification. I think sample weighting is more precise than weighting all the samples from one class ...
1k views

### Weighted accuracy, sensitivity and specificity

I have a confusion matrix TN= 27 FP=20 FN =11 TP=6 I want to calculate the weighted average for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. I know the equation but unsure how to do the weighted averages.
1 vote
32 views

### Integer encoding and weighing when one feature consists of more names [closed]

Hello I am trying to make a content based movie recommendation system and one feature is genre of the movie. I will give an integer number to each genre randomly. However, some movies are of more than ...
104 views

### Understanding Weighted learning in Ensemble Classifiers

I'm currently studying Boosting techniques in Machine Learning and I happened to understand that in Algorithms like Adaboost, each of the training samples is given a weight depending on whether it was ...
1 vote
16 views

### Class weights in RSNSS package?

New to ML in general and have been Googling on this. I am working on a dataset that will rate each customer features to a credit worthiness class attribute. Is it possible to add class weights in the '...
53 views

### Methods of disaggregating data to smaller units?

I have a relatively straightforward question that I know poses some difficult challenges. Let's say I have a state-level rate of X. I would like to disaggregate the state-level rate to the county-...
2k views

### How to interpret the sample_weight parameter in MiniBatchKMeans?

I am using scikit-learn MiniBatchKMeans to do text clustering. In the fit() function there is a parameter sample_weight described as follows: The weights for each ...
94 views

### How to balance dataset using fit_generator() in Keras?

I am trying to use keras to fit a CNN model to classify 2 classes of data . I have imbalanced dataset I want to balance my data equally. How I can do that ?? Any help would be appreciated The main ...
1 vote
508 views

### How and where to set weights in case of imbalanced cost sensitive learning in machine learning?

I confront with a binary classification machine learning task which is both slightly imbalanced and cost sensitive. I wonder what (and where in the modeling pipeline, say, in sklearn) is the best way ...
1 vote
514 views

### Assign more importance to recent records during training

My goal is to build a classification model in order to predict if a customer will buy a product or not (binary classification). Since in the last months (let's say 3-4) I know that the advertising of ...
4k views

### Weighted loss functions vs weighted sampling?

For image classification tasks, is there a practical difference between using weighted loss functions vs. using weighted sampling? (I would appreciate theoretical arguments, experience or published ...
1 vote
40 views

### Non-monotone missing data, and inverse probability weighting

I'm having difficulty identifying whether or not my missing data pattern is 'monotone'. I have two variables with missing data, and the missing data patterns in each variable do not completely ...
257 views

### When exactly should I use weighted loss?

Do I have to use it in any case when the class distribution is imbalance (Train: class A:10%, B:90% and Test: class A:10%, B:90%) or when it is different (Train: class A:10%, B:90% and Test: class A:...
1 vote
218 views

### Heterogeneous clustering with text data

I have a dataset which consists of multiple user ratings. Each rating looks similarly to: ...
53 views

### Closed form of Weighted Ordinary Least Squares calculation of the trend line

I would like to know if there is a closed form version of this equation: $\beta = \frac{n\sum{xy}-\sum{x}\sum{y}}{n\sum{x^2}-(\sum{x})^2}$ But for weighted data, where the weight $w_i$ is the value ...
1 vote
244 views

### Grouping by 2 Columns in R to Sum, Count, Percentage, Weighted mean, mode [closed]

I am trying to use dplyr or data.table to calculate sums, percentages, counts, and weighted means for various sub groups. Each Name can have subgroups High Medium and low, and potentially others, and ...
1 vote
863 views

### Counting Number of Parameters in Neural Networks [closed]

Note: This is an academics based problem. So in a recent in-class quiz, we were asked that if we have an input layer consisting of 20 nodes along with 2 hidden layers (one of size 10 and the other of ...
1 vote
48 views

### On assiging weights for unbalanced classes

Consider a dataset that will be split into train and test. The model will be learned using the train set and evaluated using the unseen test set. Now the dataset is unbalanced -- it contains more ...
1k views

### XGBoost predicting everything as null when sample weights are passed

I am trying to build an Uplift model using observational data. The data is consists of collections calls to customers and my objective is to predict the incremental probability due to the treatment (...
710 views

### How to generate 12 independent random weights which all add up to one

I'm using Palisade's @Risk software with a triangular distribution to generate 12 random weights which must add up to one, but I get a lot of negative numbers. Is there a straightforward way to set ...
487 views

### How to visualize the weights of the output(classification) layer?

I'm doing a Convolutional Neural Network of MNIST data set, and how can I visualize the weights of the output(classification) layer? I only found several websites visualizing the filters in CNN model ...
244 views

### Clustering with custom criterion (minimum cluster weight)

Edit: following comment from @anony-mousse, I'm changing the question to search for a general clustering approach that matches this criterion (minimum weight per cluster). I am to use a clustering ...
100 views

### Training a model where each response in the observation data has a different known varience

I have a dataset where each response variable is the number of successes of N Bernoulli trials with N and p (the probability of success) being different for each observation. The goal is to train a ...
8k views

### CNN - imbalanced classes, class weights vs data augmentation

I have a dataset with a few strongly imbalanced classes, eg. the smallest class is about 54 times smaller than the largest. Therefore, data augmentation in order to equalize the size of classes seems ...
1 vote
1k views

### How are weights calculated in a feed-forward neural network before they are summed up with bias?

I have read a lot of papers and watched different videos, it seems like they explain how they are summed up with bias before entering the activation function. What I am trying to understand is the ...
7k views

### Why doesn't class weight resolve the imbalanced classification problem?

I know that in imbalanced classification, the classifier tends to predict all the test labels as larger class label, but if we use class weight in loss function, it would be reasonable to expect the ...
1k views

### Calculate weighted mean for two columns and hundreds of rows?

I'm trying to teach myself basics of R and I couldn't find the answer: Say, I have a csv file and I want to calculate weighted mean for each subject such that I have a mean mu = 0.015*1030+0.16*26930+...
21k views

### How to apply class weight to a multi-output model?

I have a model with 2 categorical outputs. The first output layer can predict 2 classes: [0, 1] and the second output layer can predict 3 classes: [0, 1, 2]. How can I apply different class weight ...
5k views

### using sklearn class weight to increase number of positive guesses in extremely unbalanced data set?

Hi I have a poorly correlated and unbalanced data set I have to work with. The set is 2 classes, 0 has 96,000 values and 1 has about 200. When I run random forest or other methods I get an output like:...