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I'm trying to implement custom object detection by taking a trained YOLOv2 model in Keras, replacing the last layer and retraining just the last layer with new data (~transfer learning). I have annotated a bunch of pictures with bounding boxes using the YOLO annotation, and put them in two separate folders ("images" where the .jpgs reside and "labels" where the .txt annotations are).

My question is, how do I load these annotations to be compatible with the network architecture?

The YOLO annotation means there's a separate .txt file for each image, containing separate lines for every object on the image. The first number denotes the category and 4 more numbers the bounding box.

Eg. pic1.txt may contain:

2 0.501471 0.488281 0.997059 0.068359
2 0.501838 0.673828 0.996324 0.091797

Then pic2.txt again

1 0.501821 0.886291 0.993445 0.044202
2 0.502549 0.937220 0.994902 0.029468

And so on.

Now I've downloaded the YOLOv2 model with trained weights etc. and loaded it in. Removed the las layer and created a new one. Since I only have two categories for objects, I figured I'd need )4 (bounding boxes) + 1 (confidence score) + 2 (categories)) * 5 (anchor/bounding box types) = 35 filters, so I did the following:

yolo_model = load_model("model_data/yolo.h5")
yolo_model.layers.pop()

new_layer = Conv2D(35, activation='linear', name='conv2D_23', kernel_size=(1, 1))
inp = yolo_model.input
out = new_layer(yolo_model.layers[-1].output)

model2 = Model(inp, out)

So the model should be okay I think. However, I have trouble with the target variables.

I read these into an array of arrays with np.shape(train_y) returning (79,).

Now when I'm trying to train the model, I do:

model2.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy',
              optimizer=optimizers.RMSprop(lr=1e-4),
              metrics=['acc'])
history = model2.fit(train_images, train_y)

This, however, returns an error:

ValueError: Error when checking target: expected conv2d_23 to have 4 dimensions, but got array with shape (79, 1)

I think that's the target values messing things up, but I'm unsure. How could I reformat them to fit? If I flatten it out, I get more than 79 values of course (as one picture may have multiple objects) and I lose which picture had which objects.

As a bonus, I'm including the summary() of my model:

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Layer (type)                    Output Shape         Param #     Connected to                     
==================================================================================================
input_1 (InputLayer)            (None, 608, 608, 3)  0                                            
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_1 (Conv2D)               (None, 608, 608, 32) 864         input_1[0][0]                    
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_1 (BatchNor (None, 608, 608, 32) 128         conv2d_1[0][0]                   
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_1 (LeakyReLU)       (None, 608, 608, 32) 0           batch_normalization_1[0][0]      
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
max_pooling2d_1 (MaxPooling2D)  (None, 304, 304, 32) 0           leaky_re_lu_1[0][0]              
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_2 (Conv2D)               (None, 304, 304, 64) 18432       max_pooling2d_1[0][0]            
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_2 (BatchNor (None, 304, 304, 64) 256         conv2d_2[0][0]                   
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_2 (LeakyReLU)       (None, 304, 304, 64) 0           batch_normalization_2[0][0]      
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
max_pooling2d_2 (MaxPooling2D)  (None, 152, 152, 64) 0           leaky_re_lu_2[0][0]              
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_3 (Conv2D)               (None, 152, 152, 128 73728       max_pooling2d_2[0][0]            
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_3 (BatchNor (None, 152, 152, 128 512         conv2d_3[0][0]                   
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_3 (LeakyReLU)       (None, 152, 152, 128 0           batch_normalization_3[0][0]      
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_4 (Conv2D)               (None, 152, 152, 64) 8192        leaky_re_lu_3[0][0]              
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_4 (BatchNor (None, 152, 152, 64) 256         conv2d_4[0][0]                   
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_4 (LeakyReLU)       (None, 152, 152, 64) 0           batch_normalization_4[0][0]      
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_5 (Conv2D)               (None, 152, 152, 128 73728       leaky_re_lu_4[0][0]              
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_5 (BatchNor (None, 152, 152, 128 512         conv2d_5[0][0]                   
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_5 (LeakyReLU)       (None, 152, 152, 128 0           batch_normalization_5[0][0]      
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
max_pooling2d_3 (MaxPooling2D)  (None, 76, 76, 128)  0           leaky_re_lu_5[0][0]              
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_6 (Conv2D)               (None, 76, 76, 256)  294912      max_pooling2d_3[0][0]            
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_6 (BatchNor (None, 76, 76, 256)  1024        conv2d_6[0][0]                   
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_6 (LeakyReLU)       (None, 76, 76, 256)  0           batch_normalization_6[0][0]      
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_7 (Conv2D)               (None, 76, 76, 128)  32768       leaky_re_lu_6[0][0]              
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_7 (BatchNor (None, 76, 76, 128)  512         conv2d_7[0][0]                   
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_7 (LeakyReLU)       (None, 76, 76, 128)  0           batch_normalization_7[0][0]      
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_8 (Conv2D)               (None, 76, 76, 256)  294912      leaky_re_lu_7[0][0]              
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_8 (BatchNor (None, 76, 76, 256)  1024        conv2d_8[0][0]                   
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_8 (LeakyReLU)       (None, 76, 76, 256)  0           batch_normalization_8[0][0]      
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
max_pooling2d_4 (MaxPooling2D)  (None, 38, 38, 256)  0           leaky_re_lu_8[0][0]              
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_9 (Conv2D)               (None, 38, 38, 512)  1179648     max_pooling2d_4[0][0]            
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_9 (BatchNor (None, 38, 38, 512)  2048        conv2d_9[0][0]                   
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_9 (LeakyReLU)       (None, 38, 38, 512)  0           batch_normalization_9[0][0]      
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_10 (Conv2D)              (None, 38, 38, 256)  131072      leaky_re_lu_9[0][0]              
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_10 (BatchNo (None, 38, 38, 256)  1024        conv2d_10[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_10 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 38, 38, 256)  0           batch_normalization_10[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_11 (Conv2D)              (None, 38, 38, 512)  1179648     leaky_re_lu_10[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_11 (BatchNo (None, 38, 38, 512)  2048        conv2d_11[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_11 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 38, 38, 512)  0           batch_normalization_11[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_12 (Conv2D)              (None, 38, 38, 256)  131072      leaky_re_lu_11[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_12 (BatchNo (None, 38, 38, 256)  1024        conv2d_12[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_12 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 38, 38, 256)  0           batch_normalization_12[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_13 (Conv2D)              (None, 38, 38, 512)  1179648     leaky_re_lu_12[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_13 (BatchNo (None, 38, 38, 512)  2048        conv2d_13[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_13 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 38, 38, 512)  0           batch_normalization_13[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
max_pooling2d_5 (MaxPooling2D)  (None, 19, 19, 512)  0           leaky_re_lu_13[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_14 (Conv2D)              (None, 19, 19, 1024) 4718592     max_pooling2d_5[0][0]            
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_14 (BatchNo (None, 19, 19, 1024) 4096        conv2d_14[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_14 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 19, 19, 1024) 0           batch_normalization_14[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_15 (Conv2D)              (None, 19, 19, 512)  524288      leaky_re_lu_14[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_15 (BatchNo (None, 19, 19, 512)  2048        conv2d_15[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_15 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 19, 19, 512)  0           batch_normalization_15[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_16 (Conv2D)              (None, 19, 19, 1024) 4718592     leaky_re_lu_15[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_16 (BatchNo (None, 19, 19, 1024) 4096        conv2d_16[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_16 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 19, 19, 1024) 0           batch_normalization_16[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_17 (Conv2D)              (None, 19, 19, 512)  524288      leaky_re_lu_16[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_17 (BatchNo (None, 19, 19, 512)  2048        conv2d_17[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_17 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 19, 19, 512)  0           batch_normalization_17[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_18 (Conv2D)              (None, 19, 19, 1024) 4718592     leaky_re_lu_17[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_18 (BatchNo (None, 19, 19, 1024) 4096        conv2d_18[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_18 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 19, 19, 1024) 0           batch_normalization_18[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_19 (Conv2D)              (None, 19, 19, 1024) 9437184     leaky_re_lu_18[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_19 (BatchNo (None, 19, 19, 1024) 4096        conv2d_19[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_21 (Conv2D)              (None, 38, 38, 64)   32768       leaky_re_lu_13[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_19 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 19, 19, 1024) 0           batch_normalization_19[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_21 (BatchNo (None, 38, 38, 64)   256         conv2d_21[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_20 (Conv2D)              (None, 19, 19, 1024) 9437184     leaky_re_lu_19[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_21 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 38, 38, 64)   0           batch_normalization_21[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_20 (BatchNo (None, 19, 19, 1024) 4096        conv2d_20[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
space_to_depth_x2 (Lambda)      (None, 19, 19, 256)  0           leaky_re_lu_21[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_20 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 19, 19, 1024) 0           batch_normalization_20[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
concatenate_1 (Concatenate)     (None, 19, 19, 1280) 0           space_to_depth_x2[0][0]          
                                                                 leaky_re_lu_20[0][0]             
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2d_22 (Conv2D)              (None, 19, 19, 1024) 11796480    concatenate_1[0][0]              
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
batch_normalization_22 (BatchNo (None, 19, 19, 1024) 4096        conv2d_22[0][0]                  
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
leaky_re_lu_22 (LeakyReLU)      (None, 19, 19, 1024) 0           batch_normalization_22[0][0]     
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
conv2D_23 (Conv2D)              (None, 19, 19, 35)   35875       leaky_re_lu_22[0][0]             
==================================================================================================
Total params: 50,583,811
Trainable params: 35,875
Non-trainable params: 50,547,936
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
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  • $\begingroup$ Any updates on this problem? $\endgroup$ – TwinPenguins Jul 26 '19 at 14:34
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I made two mistakes.

First of all, I was appending my data to a list, and ended up with a shape of (79,) as lists within an array can have different lengths and even though they didn't in this case, I still ended up with a shape of (79,) and that was not what the NN was expecting.

Second of all, the input for the YOLO algorithm splits the image into a grid and requires having the center point of a bounding box tied to a specific grid cell. Ergo the input has to be of (sample_size, grid_cell_size, grid_cell_size, filter_num) so basically you have to have a function that transforms your bounding boxes into this format.

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  • $\begingroup$ @TwinPenguins This is what I found! $\endgroup$ – lte__ Jul 29 '19 at 8:47

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